IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 115

potencia eólica marítima comenzaron
a tomar forma y en 1987 se estableció
el Comité Gubernamental de Parques
Eólicos Marítimos.
El giro medioambiental en
la planificación energética
danesa
La Convención Marco de las Naciones
Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático fue
adoptada en 1992, y el Protocolo de
Kyoto, que implementó sus objetivos,
fue adoptado en 1997.
La industria de la energía eólica
en Dinamarca ganaba impulso. Las
turbinas eólicas crecieron en altura
y su eficiencia energética mejoró. La
capacidad de potencia eólica en la
red aumentó en consecuencia. En la
década de 1990, las políticas energéticas
y medioambientales danesas se
entrelazaron. El ministro de Medio
Ambiente, Svend Auken, dio prioridad
al crecimiento verde y el desarrollo
sostenible e introdujo un plan
para la reducción de gases de efecto
invernadero, iniciativas que también
beneficiarían a la industria de la energía
eólica danesa.
En 1993, el ministro alentó a los
ayuntamientos a iniciar el proceso de
planificación de los parques eólicos
municipales. Desde mediados de la
década de 1990, los subsidios estatales
alentaron a reemplazar las turbinas
eólicas en tierra más viejas e ineficientes
por tecnologías modernas de
potencia eólica, y en 1996 se instruyó
a las compañías eléctricas que aumentaran
la capacidad de potencia eólica
en tierra existente en un total de 900
MW para el año 2005 (véanse las figuras
6 y 7).
Generación de potencia
eólica en el mar
El primer parque eólico marítimo
del mundo, Vindeby Offshore Wind
Farm (11 turbinas de 0.45 MW cada
una), fue conectado a la red en 1991.
En 1995, la Comisión Marítima reveló
cinco posibles sitios de parques
eólicos marítimos de interés para la
autoridad
en
mayo/junio 2021
territorios marítimos
daneses y, en 1997, Auken, ahora mifigura
6. El parque eólico Rødby Fjord, Dinamarca, 3 MW. (Cortesía de Vestas
Wind Systems).
nistro de Medio Ambiente y Energía,
sorprendentemente prometió al mundo
750 MW de capacidad provenientes
de parques eólicos marítimos en
una reunión del Fondo Mundial para
la Naturaleza en Washington, DC. Un
informe de 1997 documentó que la
generación de potencia eólica marítima
era ahora mucho más barata de lo
que se había anticipado, y en 1998, el
ministerio ordenó a las empresas eléctricas
que desarrollaran cinco parques
eólicos marítimos daneses con una capacidad
total de 750 MW.
Hacia fines de la década de 1990,
grandes
las
pequeñas
o
cooperativas
de parques eólicos y particulares
todavía eran dueños de la mayoría de
las 6,300 turbinas eólicas de Dinamarca.
A medida que mejoraba la eficiencia
de las tecnologías de la potencia eólica,
las empresas de servicios públicos
también comenzaron a invertir en los
parques eólicos (véase la figura 8).
figura 7. Parque eólico Hvide Sande, Dinamarca, 3 MW. (Cortesía de Vestas
Wind Systems.
ieee power & energy magazine
115

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
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