IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 117

a la red en 2002 (80 turbinas eólicas a
2 MW cada una). Era el parque eólico
marítimo más grande en ese momento.
En 2010, el parque eólico marítimo
de Anholt se convirtió en el parque eólico
marítimo más grande del mundo
(111 turbinas eólicas de 3.6 MW cada
una).
Como continuación del Acuerdo de
Energía de 2008, el Acuerdo de Energía
amplio de la coalición política de
2012-2020 también incluyó múltiples
y ambiciosas metas de transición energética
de bajas emisiones de carbono,
lo cual incluía planes para la licitación
de un parque eólico marítimo costero
de 450 MW. El gobierno no predijo
el nivel de controversia social, política
y legal que seguiría a raíz de estos
parques eólicos planeados cerca de la
costa danesa. Sin embargo, los costos
de generación de potencia eólica en el
mar disminuyeron drásticamente en los
años siguientes. Por lo tanto, a medida
que la oposición a los parques eólicos
en tierra (y cerca de la costa) se convirtió
en la nueva normalidad, las ambiciones
para la generación de potencia
eólica a gran escala se trasladaron más
lejos de la tierra.
Conclusión
Esta breve historia de la potencia eólica
en Dinamarca describe cómo el surgimiento
y la evolución de las tecnologías
de la potencia eólica danesa fueron
respaldados por un impulso innovador
ascendente, la cultura y los valores
cooperativos y por el apoyo de políticas
descendentes. Esto muestra cómo las
ambiciones de las políticas gubernamentales
para la independencia energética
y la diversificación energética,
los sentimientos públicos antinucleares
y la creciente conciencia ambiental se
tradujeron gradualmente en el interés
en y el apoyo a las energías renovables
disponibles localmente, especialmente
la potencia eólica. Con el advenimiento
de las tecnologías " potencia-a-X " , y
con varias iniciativas de planificación
de infraestructura energética a gran escala
en el tapete, el futuro de la potencia
eólica y su industria en Dinamarca
parece prometedor.
Lecturas complementarias
P. Flemming, Da Danmark fik Vinger:
Vindmøllehistorien 1978-2018 (Cuando
Dinamarca obtuvo sus alas: la historia
de la turbina eólica). Copenhague,
Dinamarca:Narayana Press, 2018.
K. Sperling, F. Hvelplund y B. V.
Mathiesen, " Evaluation of wind power
planning in Denmark-Towards an
integrated
perspective " (Evaluación
de la planificación de la potencia eólica
en Dinamarca: hacia una perspectiva
integrada), Energy (Oxford),
vol. 35, n.º 12, págs. 5443-5454,
2010-2012. doi: 10.1016/j.energy.2010.
06.039.
F. Hvelplund, P. A. Ostergaard y
N. I. Meyer, " Incentives and barriers
for wind power expansion and system
integration in Denmark " (Incentivos
y barreras para la expansión de la potencia
eólica y la integración al sistema
en Dinamarca), Energy Policy, vol.
107, págs. 573-584, agosto 2017. doi:
10.1016/j.enpol.2017.05.009.
N. I. Meyer, " Learning from wind
energy policy in the EU: Lessons from
Denmark, Sweden and Spain " (Aprendizaje
de las políticas sobre energía eólica
en la UE: lecciones de Dinamarca, Suecia
y España), Environ. Governance Policy,
vol. 17, n.º 5, págs. 347-362, septiembre/
octubre 2007. doi: 10.1002/eet.463.
" Políticas energéticas de los países
de la AIE: Dinamarca 2017, " Agencia
Internacional de Energía, París, Francia,
2017.
K. Johansen y P. Upham, " The
post-normal politics and science of
wind power planning: Evidence from
a Danish near-shore wind farm tender "
(Las políticas posteriores a la normalidad
y la ciencia de la planificación de
la potencia eólica: evidencia de una licitación
de un parque eólico danés cerca
de la costa), Energy Res. Social Sci.,
vol. 53, págs. 182-193, julio 2019. doi:
10.1016/j.erss.2019.02.007.
p&e
mayo/junio 2021
ieee power & energy magazine
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

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