IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 24

corriente de retroalimentación FED a la falla, lo que provoca
la interrupción de una parte saludable del sistema. El
principio básico de los disparos no deseados se explica en la
figura 1 para la misma falla entre los nodos 5 y 6. Durante
el cortocircuito, la turbina eólica alimenta una corriente de
cortocircuito ICB14
en ICB4 la dirección de ICB12 En el caso
.
de una gran corriente de turbina eólica, el relé que controla
CB12 puede ordenar que el interruptor se dispare antes de
que los relés que controlan CB7 o CB4 actúen. Por lo tanto,
la apertura de CB12 provoca la desconexión de un alimentador
en buen estado.
El tercer desafío, especialmente para las microrredes en
isla dominadas por la generación con interfaz PE, es el nivel
de corriente de cortocircuito drásticamente reducido. Las
unidades con interfaz PE pueden contribuir solo entre 1 y 1.5
veces su corriente nominal durante cortocircuitos durante un
tiempo limitado. Esto conduce a diferencias importantes en
los niveles de corriente de falla esperados cuando la microrred
está conectada a la red o en una isla.
El cuarto desafío es la ambigüedad en la corriente de cortocircuito
a la que contribuyen las unidades con interfaz PE.
Durante los cortocircuitos, el comportamiento de estas unidades
está dictado por los algoritmos de control implementados
que limitan su corriente durante las fallas para proteger
sus elementos de conmutación. Esto es diferente a los generadores
síncronos, cuya contribución de corriente de falla es
causada directamente por los flujos electromagnéticos atrapados
en sus bobinados. Varios estándares y códigos de red
han incluido funcionalidades que abordan la operación de
las FED con interfaz PE durante fallas, especialmente aquellas
conectadas a sistemas de transmisión. El requerimiento
más común y de aplicación generalizada es el soporte a la
red durante fallas (fault ride-through), que se expresa como
una tensión en la curva de tiempo después de la falla, que se
muestra en la figura 2(a). Siempre que el punto de funcionamiento
en la conexión de una unidad FED esté por encima
de esta curva, la unidad debe permanecer conectada.
Muchos códigos de red requieren una inyección de corriente
reactiva para el soporte de tensión durante una falla, como se
ilustra en la figura 2(b), que describe los requerimientos del
código de operación griego en sistemas eléctricos insulares
no interconectados. Esta característica se refiere únicamente
a fallas simétricas. Por lo tanto, la respuesta requerida de las
unidades con interfaz PE a fallas desequilibradas no está
definida en la mayoría de los códigos de red y, por lo tanto, la
determinación de las corrientes de cortocircuito esperadas en
condiciones de falla desequilibradas es ambigua. En este caso,
las unidades con interfaz PE contribuyen a fallas basadas en
Interruptor cerrado
L
Carga
WT Turbina eólica
Almacenamiento
B
de energía por
baterías
Transformador
de puesta a tierra
Corriente de falla
Interruptor
abierto
Nodo 5
FV Energía
fotovoltaica
Red pública
PE
Falla
CB6 CB8
L
ICB2
CB1
CB2
ICB12
CB12
Red pública
Nodo 1
Transformador
de puesta a tierra
Red de distribución
Nodo 2
CB20
ICB3
WT
CB3
B
figura 1. El impacto de la presencia de las FED en la protección de microrredes.
24
ieee power & energy magazine
mayo/junio 2021
Microrred
ICB14
CB14 CB16
L
CB19
L
CB13
CB15
CB17 CB18
FV
Nodo 3
Nodo 4
CB4
ICB6
CB11
L
ICB4
CB5
ICB7
CB7
CB9 CB10
Nodo 6

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover4
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