IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 35

ancho de banda bajo, el costo y la complejidad de la red de
comunicación se reducen en comparación con los esquemas
de protección diferencial.
Los esquemas de protección adaptable se pueden implementar
con arquitecturas centralizadas y distribuidas. En
la arquitectura centralizada, los grupos de configuración se
pueden actualizar en función de los cálculos realizados en
línea o fuera de línea. En el caso de los cálculos en línea, un
controlador central recibe las señales requeridas, por ejemplo,
estados de los interruptores automáticos, para identificar
la topología actual de la microrred. Luego, una computadora
local ejecuta simulaciones de fallas en diferentes ubicaciones
de microrredes y, de acuerdo con las corrientes de falla
calculadas, se activa el grupo de configuración adecuado, por
ejemplo, resolviendo un problema de optimización que tiene
como objetivo minimizar los tiempos de operación de los
dispositivos de protección. Finalmente, las señales digitales
se envían a los relés a través de un sistema de comunicación
de bajo ancho de banda. El principal inconveniente de este
enfoque es el requerimiento de que un motor de simulación
en el controlador central realice los cálculos de cortocircuito
en tiempo real, lo que podría aumentar el costo total y afectar
adversamente la confiabilidad del sistema de protección.
Además, requiere nuevos cálculos cuando ocurre un cambio
en la microrred, retrasando así la actualización del grupo de
configuración en los relés.
Interruptor cerrado
L Carga
WT Turbina eólica
Almacenamiento
B
de energía por
baterías
Falla
L
CB1
Red pública Nodo 1
CB12
CB2
PV
FV
Nodo 3
CB13
CB14
CB15
CB16
L
Nodo 2
Sistema simulado
CB3
WT
B
Nodo 4
CB17 CB18
CB19
L
L
FV
PV
Interruptor abierto
Energía
Nodo 5
fotovoltaica
CB4
Red pública
PE
CB5 CB7 CB9 CB10
CB6 CB8
CB11
Nodo 6
Comando de disparo
Relé
Simulador
digital en
tiempo real
diferencial
Formas de
onda de tensión
y corriente
Relé
diferencial
Comando de disparo
Señales de
estado
del
interruptor
figura 9. Prueba HIL de un sistema de protección adaptativo.
mayo/junio 2021
ieee power & energy magazine
35
Controlador
central
Configuración
de señales
de cambio
de grupo

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover4
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