IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 43

El comportamiento del inversor está definido en gran medida
por el software,y brinda un nivel superior de flexibilidad y
características y oportunidades de desempeño únicas.
y de seguimiento de la red. Estos se describen en la tabla 1,
y los diagramas de bloques de cada tipo se muestran en la
figura 3.
Los inversores de formación de la red regulan la tensión
y la frecuencia en su punto de interconexión. Cuando hay
varias fuentes que comparten la responsabilidad de la regulación
de la frecuencia, normalmente se usan droops de frecuencia,
que proporcionan una pendiente del punto de ajuste
de la frecuencia contra la potencia de salida del generador.
El droop de frecuencia asegura la estabilidad de la frecuencia
de la microrred al mismo tiempo que comparte potencia
activa entre las IBR. Los inversores de formación de la red
también están equipados con caídas de tensión para contemplar
la regulación de tensión coordinada en la microrred
mientras comparten potencia reactiva entre las IBR. Los
inversores de seguimiento de la red están equipados solo
con circuitos de control de potencia y corriente, que facilitan
su operación como fuentes controlables de potencia
activa y reactiva.
Dispositivos y materiales
El tipo de interruptor y el material del interruptor del semiconductor
utilizados en un inversor afectan los tipos de protección
posibles de los sistemas eléctricos energizados por
ese inversor. Los interruptores controlados más utilizados
en los inversores de hoy son transistores bipolares de compuerta
aislada de silicio y transistores semiconductores de
efecto de campo de óxido metálico.
El silicio tiene una banda ancha de aproximadamente
1.1 eV. Es abundante y ampliamente entendido, las técnicas
de procesamiento están muy avanzadas. Sin embargo,
las propiedades del material imponen ciertas limitaciones
al desempeño de los dispositivos de conmutación de silicio.
Los interruptores hechos a partir de semiconductores con
bandas anchas más amplias, tales como el carburo de silicio
(2.3-3.3 eV) y el nitruro de galio (3.4 eV), podrían tener tensiones
operativas significativamente más altas, temperaturas
operativas más altas, resistencias mínimas más bajas y conmutación
de dispositivos más rápida.
P/Q/Ajuste del
factor de potencia
control de
lazo cerrado
de la corriente
interna
Inversor
Bucle de control
de corriente interno
Medición de corriente
Calculadora
de P y Q
(a)
Inversor
Control de lazo
cerrado de la
tensión interna
Bucle de control
de tensión interno
Bucle de control
de corriente interno
Medición
de corriente
Medición
de tensión
Ajuste de
frecuencia
Ajuste de tensión
Control droop
para la frecuencia
y la tensión
(b)
figura 3. Diagramas de control de las IBR: inversores (a) de seguimiento de la red y (b) de formación de la red.
mayo/junio de 2021
ieee power & energy magazine
43
Bucle de fase sincronizada
Calculadora
de P y Q
Medición de tensión
y corriente
Filtro de
producción LC
Medición de tensión y corriente
Filtro de salida

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
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