IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 45

Para proteger la conmutación de los semiconductores, la mayoría
de los inversores incluyen limitadores de conmutación de la
corriente tanto de hardware como de software que mantienen bajo
el nivel de la corriente de falla de las IBR.
y este cambio de frecuencia típicamente será suficiente para
disparar la IBR de seguimiento de la red, pero también
puede interferir con las mediciones cuadráticas medias de
la frecuencia fijada. Además, si muchas IBR están proporcionando
soporte de potencia reactiva pero tienen distintas
constantes de tiempo, pueden interactuar una con la otra.
Componentes de secuencia diferentes
En las IBR de seguimiento de la red, los circuitos de control
están diseñados para suprimir el componente de secuencia
negativa de la corriente, lo que ocasiona corrientes de
secuencia negativa que normalmente tienen menos del 10 %
del valor de secuencia positiva, lo que puede causar que los
sistemas de protección se comporten de manera impredecible.
Los inversores de formación de la red pueden normalmente
inyectar altos niveles de corrientes de secuencia negativa
para modos de operación de la red desbalanceados, pero
no todos los inversores de la microrred pueden ser controlados
de esta manera, lo que puede
hacer que sea desafiante predecir
la contribución y el diseño de protección
de la corriente de falla de
los inversores.
1.5
1.25
1
Contribuciones no lineales de
la corriente de falla
Los limitadores de la corriente
de falla de los inversores también
hacen que las corrientes de fallas
sean no lineales. Esto puede afectar
el análisis tradicional de cortocircuito
en el dominio fasorial,
lo que se apoya en el equivalente
lineal del modelo de fuentes de
Thevenin. Además, muchos inversores
limitan la corriente máxima
de salida al manipular la modulación
de ancho de pulso para disminuir
la corriente máxima de
salida, lo que ocasiona una forma
de onda plana. Los valores no
deseados de armónicos de la tensión
y la corriente pueden ocasionar
desafíos al calcular sus valores
fundamentales.
mayo/junio de 2021
0.75
0.5
0.25
0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
Tiempo (s)
(a)
1.5
1.25
1
0.75
0.5
0.25
0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08
Tiempo (s)
(b)
0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12
I0 = I1 = I2
Resulta importante que los inversores de formación de
la red usados en microrredes o aplicaciones aisladas pueden
ser diseñados para producir corrientes de secuencia negativa
y secuencia cero. Distinto de los inversores FV de seguimiento
de la red, para brindar soporte a las aplicaciones de
microrredes desbalanceadas, los inversores de formación de
la red controlan la tensión y la frecuencia en lugar de limitar
las inyecciones de secuencia negativa. Por ejemplo, en la
figura 4, para una falla de línea a tierra, los diseños de protección
convencionales esperan que la corriente de secuencia
cero ()I0
sea igual a la corriente de secuencia negativa ().I2
sea igual a la corriente de secuencia positiva ()I1
En el caso
de un inversor de seguimiento de la red, no hay una corriente
de secuencia cero y solo hay corriente de secuencia negativa
limitada durante la falla debido a los controles del inversor,
pero el inversor de formación de la red responde como se
espera a inyecciones de corriente de secuencia convencionales.
Falla
Sin
corriente de
secuencia negativa
o secuencia cero
0.09 0.1 0.11 0.12
Positiva Negativa Cero
figura 4. Los resultados del experimento sobre la falla de línea a tierra aplican a
inversores trifásicos (a) de seguimiento de la red y de (b) formación de la red.
ieee power & energy magazine
45
Corrientes de secuencia (p.u.)
Corrientes de secuencia (p.u.)

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

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