IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 46

Se llevaron a cabo pruebas experimentales similares en
el inversor de formación de la red para fallas de doble línea
a tierra, en las que la inyección del inversor I1
era igual a
la suma de I0
línea, donde la corriente del inversor I1
e ,I2 como se esperaba, y las fallas de línea a
equivale a I2
como se
esperaba. Esto puede ser particularmente desafiante al diseñar
esquemas de protección de la microrred porque la generación
basada en inversores puede conmutar entre modos de
control cuando la microrred cambia permanentemente entre
operar conectadas a la red y operar en isla.
Por ejemplo, en el modo de conexión a la red, tanto un
inversor FV como un inversor de almacenamiento de energía
pueden usar inversores con seguimiento de la red de
corriente controlada sin inyecciones de secuencia cero o
secuencia negativa. Durante la transición de la microrred a
operación en isla, el inversor FV probablemente se mantendrá
en modo de control de seguimiento de la red, pero el
inversor de almacenamiento de energía puede diseñarse para
que pase al modo de formación de la red y que pueda inyectar
corriente de secuencia negativa y secuencia cero.
Impacto de las IBR en esquemas de protección
convencionales
Las características únicas de la corriente de falla de las IBR
pueden afectar negativamente el desempeño de los esquemas
de protección convencionales.
✔ Impacto de las IBR en la protección de sobrecorriente:
la poca contribución de la corriente de falla de las
IBR puede afectar negativamente la operación de los
dispositivos de protección de sobrecorriente. Este impacto
se pone de manifiesto en una microrred en isla,
en la que no se suministra la corriente de falla de una
red conectada aguas arriba, y las IBR de la microrred
son la única fuente de la corriente de falla. En este
caso, los dispositivos convencionales de sobrecorriente
no pueden detectar y aislar fallas en la microrred
si la corriente de falla que detectan está por debajo
de su configuración de detección, y es difícil elegir
configuraciones de sobrecorriente que proporcionen
suficiente sensibilidad y selectividad.
✔ Impacto de las IBR en la protección direccional: esta
corriente de secuencia negativa potencialmente impredecible
de las IBR afecta significativamente el desempeño
de los esquemas de protección que se apoyan en esta
cantidad, por ejemplo, buscando determinar la dirección
de las fallas. Además, el desempeño de los relés de sobrecorriente
de secuencia negativa que se usan con el
objetivo de detectar las fallas asimétricas se ve altamente
comprometido en casos de alta penetración de las IBR.
✔ Coordinación del sistema de protección: la alta penetración
de las IBR distribuida a lo largo del sistema
puede impactar la coordinación de fusibles, reconectores
y relés de protección contra sobrecorriente debido
a las inyecciones de corriente de falla de varias ubicaciones.
Además, debido a que las IBR producirán,
esencialmente, una corriente fija a una falla, no dis0.5
vA
vB
vC
vpos
vneg
-0.5
7.95
8 8.05 8.1 8.15
Tiempo (s)
(a)
0.5
iA
iB
iC
Ipos
Ineg
Ilimite
-0.5
7.95 8 8.05 8.1 8.15
Tiempo (s)
(c)
8.2 8.25
8.2 8.25
4
2
-2
-4
8
8.1
8.2
Tiempo (s)
(b)
2
1
-1
-2
8
8.1
8.2
Tiempo (s)
(d)
figura 5. Comportamiento del inversor durante una falla de fase A a tierra en modo en isla. (a) Tensión del terminal
de inversor de formación de la red, (b) corriente de salida de inversor de formación de la red, (c) tensión del terminal de
inversor de seguimiento de la red, y (d) corriente de salida de inversor de seguimiento de la red.
46
ieee power & energy magazine
mayo/junio de 2021
8.3
8.4
8.3
8.4
Tensión (kV)
Tensión (kV)
Corriente (kA)
Corriente (kA)

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
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