IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 48

La figura 5 muestra que los inversores responden de
acuerdo con su diseño, el inversor 1 de formación de la
red proporciona corrientes desbalanceadas tanto antes
de la falla para la carga desbalanceada como durante
la falla de línea a tierra. Por otro lado, el inversor 2 de
seguimiento de la red siempre proporciona una corriente
balanceada sin corriente de secuencia negativa. Los
inversores están conectados con un transformador delta/
Yg 480-V/4.16-kV, para que la falla a tierra en fase A ocasione
tensiones más altas en la fase C en el lado delta del
transofrmador del inversor. Simular dinámicamente este
comportamiento de la falla, las corrientes de secuencias y
las tensiones transitorias es vital para analizar la protección
de las microrredes.
Exploración de las opciones
de protección tradicionales para las
microrredes alimentadas por IBR
Son tres los objetivos de proteger cualquier sistema eléctrico:
1) detectar la falla, 2) determinar la ubicación de la falla en el
alimentador y 3) desenergizar la falla antes de que se dañe el
equipo al mismo tiempo que se desconecte la menor cantidad
posible de cargas. Los esquemas de protección tradicionales
es del sistema de distribución alcanzan los tres objetivos con
la protección contra sobrecorriente coordinada, cuyo diseño
500
250
-250
-500
0.85
500
250
-250
-500
0.85
1,000
750
500
250
-250
-1,000
-750
-500
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
Tiempo (s)
(c)
figura 7. Las corrientes para fallas de línea a línea de fase A a fase B dentro de una zona de protección diferencial cuando
una microrred basada en IBR está en modo en isla: (a) extremo de envío, (b) extremo receptor, y (c) corrientes diferenciales.
48
ieee power & energy magazine
mayo/junio de 2021
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
0.9
0.95
1
Tiempo (s)
(b)
Fase A
Fase B
Fase C
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
0.9
0.95
1
Tiempo (s)
(a)
Fase A
Fase B
Fase C
1.05
1.1
1.15
1.2
se apoya en el supuesto de que el sistema es radial y se alimenta
solo de un nodo infinito.
Una microrred alimentada por IBR puede tener múltiples
fuentes, al tener corrientes de fallas bidireccionales cuya
magnitud está muy limitada. Por lo tanto, no se espera que
los sistemas de protección de distribución tradicional que
dependen mucho de los fusibles y reconectores funcionen
bien en microrredes con IBR. Por este motivo, se ha explorado
la adecuación de los esquemas de protección más sofisticados
en cuanto a la protección de sistemas de distribución
de microrredes. La adecuación de dichos esquemas de protección
se discute en las siguientes subsecciones.
Aumento de la corriente de falla disponible
Una de las opciones más directas que se pueden considerar
es aumentar la corriente de falla de la microrred al punto de
que la protección contra sobrecorriente coordinada se torna
eficiente. La solución es más viable en casos en los que las
fuentes de la microrred se ubican en un nodo fuente y no se
distribuyen en la microrred. Una manera de aumentar la frecuencia
de la corriente de falla utilizada en las microrredes
hoy es instalar capacidad de inversor excesiva (normalmente
el doble o más del requerimiento máximo esperado de la
carga) para que la central de IBR proporcione corriente de
falla sustancialmente más alta. Esta opción puede funcioFase
A
Fase B
Fase C
Corriente (A)
Corriente (A)
Corriente (A)

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

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