IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 57

Dado que las corrientes de falla disponibles en las redes
secundarias son tan altas, los arcos eléctricos pueden ser una
preocupación significativa, particularmente en sistemas que
funcionan a 480 V.
red. Para ciertas fallas en el cable, especialmente en las redes
malladas, la corriente de falla es tan alta que el cable en sí
mismo actúa como un fusible, y la falla " se consume completamente " .
Debido a que hay muchos puntos de origen dentro
de una red secundaria, una falla en cualquier alimentador
secundario debe ser aislada por ambos lados. Además, en
sistemas de CA con tensiones inferiores a 150 V, los arcos
tienden a autoextingurse porque la tensión es demasiado baja
para poder mantenerlos. Así, en las redes malladas que operan
a 120 V, se resolverán muchas fallas en forma de arcos.
La protección contra fallas en los conductores entre el
interruptor del alimentador primario y el transformador de
red también requiere que la falla se encuentre aislada por
ambos lados. Una falla en un alimentador primario puede ser
alimentada directamente desde el servicio principal así como
a través de la red secundaria, lo cual forma un circuito de
retorno al servicio principal en el lado " aguas abajo " de la
falla. Esto se presenta en la figura 3, que muestra la red puntual
en la figura 2 con una falla a tierra en el alimentador primario
N. En la figura 3 se han numerado los interruptors y las
unidades de red. Las flechas doradas muestran la corriente de
falla que fluye hacia la falla desde ambos lados. En las redes
secundarias, la falla del alimentador primario es aislada del
servicio principal a través de las funciones de sobrecorriente
habituales en el interruptor del alimentador primario (CB 3),
y desde la unidad de red (NU 3) en el lado " en sentido descendente "
de la falla por la función de potencia inversa (función
32) en la NU 3 del protector de la red.
La función de potencia inversa utiliza normalmente un
ajuste sensible para asegurar de que solo el protector de red
aguas abajo de la falla lateral primaria (la verde en la figura
3) disparará con la corriente inversa antes de que cualquier
Servicio principal (SP)
CB 1
CB 2
CB 3
NU 1
NU 2
NU 3
NC: interruptor
normalmente cerrado
NU: unidad de red
NC
NC
Enlace
Cargas
Enlace
Cargas
NC
Enlace
Cargas
figura 3. Una red puntual con una falla en el alimentador principal N, que muestra las rutas de acceso de la corriente de
falla alimentada de ambos lados de la misma.
mayo/junio 2021i
eee power & energy magazine
57
NC
Enlace
Alimentador
principal 1
(SP)
Alimentador
secundario 1 (BT)
Alimentador
principal 2
(SP)
Alimentador
secundario 2 (BT)
Alimentador
principal 3
(SP)
Alimentador
secundario 3 (BT)

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover4
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