IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 67

con la calidad de vida. Se protege directamente a las personas
eliminando las corrientes de fallas e indirectamente
manteniendo los hospitales abastecidos con energía, los sistemas
de envío en línea, las instalaciones militares operativas
y resguardando los activos como conductores, transformadores
y motores de sistemas eléctricos y los procesos
que producen ingresos. ¿Qué tienda, fábrica o casa puede
funcionar sin energía eléctrica?
Los PPR son los dispositivos de microprocesadores que
se acoplan más estrechamente a todas las redes y microrredes
de empresas de servicios públicos. Se requieren para
proteger la vida, el entorno y los activos de daños tanto en
redes como microrredes de empresas de servicios públicos.
Comúnmente solo realizan funciones de protección en redes
de empresas de servicios públicos, aunque con frecuencia
proporcionan tanto funciones de protección como de control
en microrredes. Son relés de protección digital con lógica
programable por el usuario, medición sincronizada, recopilación
de datos oscilográficos, recopilación de secuencias
de eventos, protocolos de comunicación de alta velocidad,
etc. Llegaron al mercado a mediados en la década de 1990
como relés de protección digital con clase de transmisión
de alta tensión y evolucionaron en dispositivos de formato
pequeño para el mercado de distribución industrial y de
media tensión. Los PPR para microrredes pequeñas se utilizan
con frecuencia como relés de protección y controladores
de microrredes. En el caso de obras mayores de microrredes,
proporcionan una conexión física cableada para los controladores
de microrredes remotos y centralizados.
El control y la protección de las microrredes son altamente
interdependientes, y con el objetivo de resolver este
desafío, los PPR modernos han adoptado una función mayor
que los tradicionales para las redes de empresas de servicios
públicos. Dependiendo de la aplicación, se ubican en un dispositivo
de conmutación, una terminal o una sala de control.
Contienen grandes cantidades de protocolos y entrada/salida
de hardware físico, permitiéndoles controlar y monitorear
inversores de forma simultánea, interruptores, cambiadores
de tomas, etc. Como se muestra
en la figura 1, un PPR interrumpe
las corrientes disparando
los interruptores, y se reconecta
al sistema cerrando los interruptores
una vez que se confirma la
sincronización. Un PPR y/o una
combinación de
controles
del
inversor también pueden controlar
(despachar) inversores, monitorearlos
para mejorar la protección
y proporcionar de forma
simultánea un panorama integral
de la situación a través de sistemas
de visualización, almacenamiento,
oscilografía y registro
de errores. La consolidación de
más funciones en menos dispositivos
electrónicos es un método
probado de mejora de resiliencia
y confiabilidad en un sistema
eléctrico, y se ha empleado para
superar las dificultades de protección
de la microrred.
Esta consolidación de funcionalidad
también ha reducido
los costos de operar microrredes
instaladas. Por ejemplo, un solo
PPR puede reemplazar un controlador
lógico programable, un
sistema de reparto de carga, un
regulador de tensión automático
digital, un regulador digital, un
controlador de cambiadores de
tomas bajo carga, un controlador
de interruptores de transferencia
mayo/junio 2021
ieee power & energy magazine
67
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http://www.SHUTTERSTOCK.COM/LUCADP

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 125
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover4
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