IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 70

Las corrientes de inversores en condiciones de circuitos con
fallas son radicalmente diferentes a las
de los generadores síncronos.
Una opción para evitar la reducción de corrientes de falla
es asegurar que las baterías no lleguen a estados de carga
baja, de manera que la limitación de corriente que se muestra
en la figura 4 no ocurra. Debe considerarse este intermediario
de carga en el dimensionamiento de las baterías para
las limitaciones económicas y relacionadas con fallas. Es
importante monitorear las capacidades de estado estacionario
y de envío de corriente transitoria de cada IBR. Los PPR
suelen utilizarse para controlar y monitorear directamente
cada sistema de IBR y generador a fin de asegurar que se
mantenga la protección efectiva y los márgenes de control.
Tiempo de respuesta del inversor
Otra consideración es el tiempo de respuesta del inversor. La
tabla 1 resume el tiempo de respuesta típico de los controles
y la protección convencionales. Los reguladores y sistemas
de combustible de motor responden a una disminución de
frecuencia del sistema eléctrico en aproximadamente 1 s.
Los reguladores de tensión automáticos de los generadores
responden en menos de 0.2 s a las perturbaciones de
tensión; la protección de sobrecorriente de tiempo opera
en 0.1 a 7 s; los sistemas de alivio de carga evitan apagones
del sistema eléctrico en unos pocos ciclos de este. Los
relés de protección de distancia identifican fallas y ordenan
a los interruptores disparar bajo un ciclo, y los relés
de onda viajera detectan e identifican las localizaciones
Corriente
Irrupción
Acumulación
de energía
cinética
Potencia de carga
de fallas en solo unos milisegundos. La escala de tiempo
de los controles y la protección no es un accidente; estas
escalas se diseñaron en el sistema eléctrico para asegurar
una coordinación fluida entre los controles y los equipos de
protección, permitiendo que los relés de protección aíslen
las fallas antes de que los controladores sobrerreaccionen
o se apaguen.
Los diseños de inversores son relativamente nuevos,
mientras que la protección y los controles de potencia de las
empresas de servicios públicos son un conjunto entrelazado
y complejo de funcionalidades diseñadas y perfeccionadas
durante los últimos 100 años o más. Aunque el comportamiento
de los inversores no está restringido por las mismas
limitaciones físicas que los generadores, se debe confirmar
la coordinación de las constantes de tiempo de los inversores
con otros componentes del sistema. Los inversores modernos
se controlan de forma digital, cambian en decenas de
kilohercios y, por lo tanto, tienen una capacidad de tiempos
de respuesta en milisegundos. Sin embargo, el verdadero
comportamiento de respuesta de falla de los inversores es
una función del firmware del proveedor, y el comportamiento
también puede verse impactado por la configuración
específica del sitio y los parámetros ajustables de forma
dinámica. Los autores han encontrado ventajas significativas
en la estrecha colaboración entre los ingenieros de protección
y de control de inversores.
Corriente
CC
Tiempo
Tiempo
Constante de tiempo de X/R
(a)
(b)
figura 5. (a) El arranque con carga en frío del motor y (b) la irrupción magnética. X/R: la proporción de la reactancia con
la resistencia del sistema.
70
ieee power & energy magazine
mayo/junio 2021

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
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