IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 83

La protección de sobrecorriente direccional en microrredes
también es un desafío. La sobrecorriente direccional
generalmente usa diferencias de ángulo de fase entre la
tensión y la corriente para determinar la dirección. En las
microrredes, las fallas pueden hacer que la frecuencia del
sistema varíe, a veces rápidamente. Los cambios en la frecuencia
pueden desafiar la estimación del ángulo de fase.
Minimización de la importación de potencia y
restricciones de exportación
Muchas facturas de servicios públicos están estructuradas
para incluir un cargo por demanda basado en la potencia
máxima demandada o importada por las cargas del sitio y
un cargo por energía basado en la energía total consumida
o importada. A fin de reducir los costos de servicios públicos
del sitio, la microrred del CEP está configurada para
minimizar tanto la demanda máxima como la energía total
importada. En este sitio, la exportación de potencia (producción
de potencia en el sitio que excede las demandas de carga
del sitio) está permitida solo por una duración limitada.
Para cumplir tanto con el objetivo de importación de
potencia como con la restricción de exportación, las FED
Utility
R
44 kV
12 kV
R
52 CB52-1
K
Leyenda:
R
Relé multifunción
(Basado en microprocesador)
Enclavamiento de llave
se despachan dentro de la microrred buscando mantener
un nivel bajo de importación. Sin embargo, con un nivel de
importación bajo, es posible que se solicite incorrectamente
a la microrred que exporte potencia cuando la carga disminuya
repentinamente, como se muestra en la figura 4.
Requerimientos de velocidad de protección
La protección de microrred también debe operar muy rápidamente
en respuesta a fallas del sistema de servicios públicos
tanto locales como externos. Las FED de microrred tienen
baja inercia, lo que puede resultar en cambios rápidos
de frecuencia de la FED cuando hay fallas. Garantizar una
respuesta estable a una falla en una microrred de baja inercia
implica que la protección de la microrred debe operar muy
rápidamente para separar todas las fuentes de corriente de
falla (incluido el sistema de servicios públicos y las FED de
la microrred) de los componentes con falla. Por ejemplo, si
hubo una falla en el circuito que atiende la carga de Thomson
Park de North Bay en modo de isla, se espera que la frecuencia
de la microrred aumente y la tensión disminuya. Los
cogeneradores se acelerarán mientras que la depresión de la
tensión hará que los inversores de seguimiento de la red, en
12 kV
600 V
12 kV
600 V
R
CB1
(Punto de interconexión) CB2
K
Nodo de dispositivos de conmutación de 600 V
RR R RR RR CB9
CB3
CB4
CA
CC
CHP
265 kW
CHP
265 kW
Sistema de
batería
250 kW
Solar
8 kW
CB5
CA
CC
Memorial
Gardens
YMCA
Thomson
Park
Cargas de los clientes
figura 2. Un diagrama unifilar simplificado de la microrred del CEP. CB: interruptor; CHP: cogeneración.
mayo/junio 2021
ieee power & energy magazine
83
CB6
CB7
CB8
R
Microrred

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
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