IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - 98

Se han incluido paulatinamente varios requerimientos
que ayuden a fomentar la instalación de más almacenamiento
solar y de energía. Un mandato importante es que
las nuevas instalaciones solares y de almacenamiento deben
usar inversores que interactúan con redes de distribución.
Estos inversores son componentes cruciales en los sistemas
de microrredes y las reglas de interconexión pueden extenderse
a ellos. Las características de los inversores incluyen
funciones de soporte de volt/voltiamperio reactivo que proporcionan
control de tensión mediante la corriente dentro de
la fase y los elementos de corriente reactiva de potencia de
retroalimentación. La dinámica de las funciones de soporte
de volt/voltiamperio reactivo y las capacidades de soporte
de la red (ride-through) agregar inercia sintética necesaria al
sistema de distribución. La inercia sintética puede ser análoga
a la que proporcionan los generadores mecánicos conectados
a un SEL. Esta es una característica importante de
tener cuando se considera la protección. Los requerimientos
de inversores que crean desafíos para la protección de cargas
y SEL incluyen arranques suaves que minimicen el impacto
a los servicios públicos de la potencia de retroalimentación
extremadamente variable, desplazamiento del apoyo de factor
de potencia y soporte de la red (ride-through) del inversor
a fin de manejar las perturbaciones del SEL.
A mediados de 2019, se obligó que los inversores conectados
a la red en California tengan un Protocolo de Internet
para comunicación, que es una serie de reglas estandarizadas
que permiten que las computadoras se comuniquen dentro
de una red. Las capacidades de comunicación facilitan el
control de los servicios públicos y el control de agregación.
Los agregadores e inversores que se comunican con servicios
públicos deben usar el nuevo IEEE 2030.5, Estándar para el
Protocolo de Aplicación de Perfiles de Energía Inteligente,
con directrices de comunicación, monitoreo y control.
Interconexión de una microrred
La interconexión e interoperabilidad de las microrredes y
FED con los SEL se rigen por estándares nacionales e internacionales.
Estos especifican las funcionalidades eléctricas,
los códigos generales de electricidad y seguridad, los
estándares de construcción física, las reglas para la seguridad
del producto que incluyen la funcionalidad de puntos de
operación y las regulaciones y mandatos estatales y locales.
Además, las interrelaciones entre los requerimientos varían
significativamente de acuerdo al país, al estado, a la ciudad,
y normalmente, al servicio público. Las tecnologías de redes
inteligentes y las microrredes utilizan comunicación, tales
como los portadores de la línea de potencia, los sistemas
Componentes de la microrred
Agregador
Analizador
Optimizador
Comunicación
Cableada
Red de producción
y distribución
eléctrica
Generación
rotativa
(Despachable)
Sistema
de gestión
de energía
Punto de
interconexión
Interruptor
inteligente
Módulo de control
del interruptor
Controlador de la
microrred y
sistema de control
(Centralizado o distribuido)
Dirección del informe y
magnitud del flujo eléctrico
Cargas
* Todos los componentes y subsistemas se pueden acceder mediante comunicación
inalámbrica
Representa subsistemas componentes que pueden ser modulados
figura 2. Un sistema virtual conceptual para las microrredes y las FED que se puede utilizar en una red en malla.
98
ieee power & energy magazine
mayo/junio de 2021
controlables
(Despachable)
Fuentes de calor y
energía renovables
y combinadas
(Limitable)
Almacenamiento
de energía
eléctrica y térmica
(Despachable)
Flujo eléctrico

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - May/June 2021 - Cover4
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