Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 31

Ejemplo 3
Virtualización de la distribución se refiere a las estructuras
virtuales para la distribución eléctrica que hemos desarro-
llado para redes eléctricas de alta resiliencia. Además de los
principios generales de arquitectura descritos anteriormente,
identificamos un conjunto de principios únicos para el pro-
blema de la arquitectura de resiliencia. Algunos de estos
principios son los siguientes:
✔ La arquitectura debe hacer uso de los principios de
modularidad, es decir, la resistencia y el (des)acopla-
miento del módulo, para limitar la propagación de exi-
gencias y esfuerzos y, por lo tanto, fallas en cascada.
✔ Asimismo, debe usar estructuras que permitan agili-
dad, adaptación y configurabilidad (incluida la flexi-
bilidad de la fuente de energía) para soportar ajustes
de deformación; esto está relacionado con la redun-
dancia y la modularidad.
✔ Los conceptos arquitectónicos deben proporcionar
estructuras que puedan soportar o permitir una degra-
dación paulatina en caso de deformaciones de la red.
✔ Se prefieren las estructuras resilientes conocidas (p.
ej., sistemas distribuidos, estratificación, plataformas,
etc.) cuando sea apropiado.

Para utilizar las FED con fines de agilidad y flexibili-
dad, desarrollamos una estructura lógica para la distribución
eléctrica que virtualiza partes de la red de distribución de
manera análoga a las áreas de equilibrio en el sistema de
energía a gran escala. El gráfico 6 proporciona dos panora-
mas de la red: una representación E-R para la red tal como
es ahora [gráfico 6 (a)] y con virtualización de distribución
[gráfico 6 (b)]. Esto se logra definiendo primero las zonas
virtuales denominadas redes lógicas de energía y luego un
conjunto de roles y responsabilidades para estas zonas y para
el operador de distribución. La virtualización desacopla el
uso de las FED para propósitos de resiliencia de la restric-
ción del área de servicio de la subestación y proporciona una
estructura dentro de la cual es factible aplicar las FED sobre
una base más particular para propósitos de resiliencia del
sistema a gran escala, sin interferir con la confiabilidad de
la distribución. El operador del sistema de energía a gran
escala no requiere una capacidad de observación detallada
a nivel de distribución y evita crear un problema de escala-
miento y un problema de vulnerabilidad de ciberseguridad
al mismo tiempo. Este modelo emplea redes laminares y el
modelo de gestor de red de distribución (GRD) total desa-
rrollado por De Martini y Kristov. El modelo es compatible

Operador del sistema

OD
Área de servicio
de subestación

Área de servicio
de subestación

Interfaz física

Área de
Área de
Área de
equilibrio
equilibrio
equilibrio
Sistemas de transmisión
Fuentes de almacenamiento y gen.

Fuentes de carga y límites
Sistema de distribución que incluye fuentes básicas Subestaciones T&D

Dominio de distribución

Sistemas de transmisión

Dominio de sistema de energía a gran escala

(a)

Interfaz de coordinación
GRD/OD

Operador del sistema
Área de
equilibrio

Red de energía Red de energía Red de energía
lógica
lógica
lógica
Dominios laminares
Cargas y fuentes límites

(b)

Área de
equilibrio

Sistemas de transmisión

Interfaz física

Fuentes de almacenamiento y generación

Sistema de distribución que incluye fuentes básicas Subestaciones T&D

Dominio de distribución

Área de
equilibrio

Sistemas de transmisión

Dominio de sistema de energía a gran escala

gráfico 6. Virtualización de los sistemas de distribución eléctrica que contienen FED: (a) modelo de red actual y
(b) modelo de red de energía lógica. OD: operador de distribución.
septiembre/octubre 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

31



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover1
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover3
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