Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 45

GRD, los modelos de GRD híbridos no están exentos de problemas porque introducen complejidad en la estructura de
roles y responsabilidades, en especial respecto de los flujos
de información, los mecanismos de control y las autoridades. Estas complejidades pueden ser manejables en niveles
más bajos de participación de las FED en el mercado y los
servicios de red, pero, a medida que crece la participación
de las FED, podrían introducir riesgos operativos provenientes de las estructuras que impactan en la confiabilidad y la
resiliencia, y enfrentan posibles problemas de escalabilidad.
En virtud de cualquier estructura, la coordinación de
TDC requerirá altos niveles de visibilidad en las condiciones de operación de la FED y las redes de distribución.
Para las redes de distribución, esto incluye modelos de red,
coordinación de conmutación física y estimación de estado
nodal a nivel de distribución. Para las FED agregadas o de
clientes, la cantidad de estándares posiblemente aplicables
para medios de información, control y comunicación, junto
con las permutaciones asociadas, crea un desafío significativo para lograr la conciencia situacional y la capacidad
de control requeridas. La relativa inmadurez del software,
hardware y tecnologías de comunicación relacionados que
están involucrados agravan los problemas. En muchos países, existe la necesidad de un conjunto más holístico de códigos de red de distribución para abordar completamente los
estándares de interconexión y coordinación operativa (por
ejemplo, física, de información, control, comunicación y de
ciberseguridad) necesarios para garantizar la confiabilidad
del sistema. Dicho código no solo incorporaría el reciente
Estándar 1547-2018 del IEEE y funciones avanzadas relacionadas con el inversor, sino que también abordaría los requisitos adicionales de planificación e información, control,
comunicación y ciberseguridad operativos, así como roles y
responsabilidades.

Lecturas complementarias
P. De Martini yL. Kristov, "Distribution systems in a high
distributed energy resource future" (Sistemas de distribución en un recurso futuro con energía altamente distribuida),
Laboratorio Nacional Lawrence Berkeley, Berkeley, CA,
Series FEUR Informe 2, oct. 2015. [En línea]. Disponible
en: https://gridarchitecture.pnnl.gov/media/advanced/
FEUR_2%20distribution%20systems%2020151022.pdf
J. Taft, "Grid architecture 2" (Arquitectura de red 2),
Laboratorio nacional del noroeste pacífico, Richland, WA,
Rep. PNL-24044 2, ene. 2016. [En línea]. Disponible en:

septiembre/octubre 2019

https://gridarchitecture.pnnl.gov/media/white-papers/GridArchitecture2final.pdf
Open Networks Project. (2017). "Opening markets for
network flexibility" (Apertura de mercados para la flexibilidad de la red), Asociación de la Red de Energía, Londres.
[En línea]. Disponible en: http://www.energynetworks.org/
assets/files/electricity/futures/Open_Networks/14574_
ENA_Open%20Networks%20Report_AW_v9_Web.pdf
AEMO y ENA. (Junio de 2018). "Open energy networks
consultation paper" (Documento de consulta sobre redes de
energía abierta), Redes de Energía de Australia. [En línea].
Disponible en: https://www.energynetworks.com.au/sites/
default /f iles/open _energy_ networks _consultation _
paper.pdf
N. Toda. (Mayo de 2015). "Integrated energy network
concept in Japan" (El concepto de red de energía integrada
en Japón), TEPCO, Ciudad de Yokohama, Japón. [En línea].
Disponible en: http://iiesi.org/assets/pdfs/4.1-tepco-energysystems-integrationiiesi-london.pdf
NYISO. (Dic. de 2017). "Distributed energy resources
market design concept proposal" (Propuesta de concepto
para el diseño de mercado de los recursos de energía distribuida). [En línea]. Disponible en: http://www.nysrc.
org/pdf/Meetings/DER%20Meeting%2011-7-18/DER%20
Workshop_3.2B_Operations_2018-11-07.pdf
CEDEC, E.DSO, ENTSO-E, Eurelectric, y GEODE.
(Abr. de 2019). "An integrated approach to active system
management" (Un enfoque integrado para la gestión activa del sistema), Informe GRT-GRD. [En línea]. Disponible en: https://www.edsoforsmartgrids.eu/wp-content/
uploads/2019/04/TSO-DSO_ASM_2019_190304.pdf
Consejo de Confiabilidad Eléctrica Nacional de Norteamérica, "System Planning Impacts from Distributed Energy
Resources Working Group (SPIDERWG) scope document"
(Impacto de la Planificación de Sistemas en el documento
de alcance del Grupo de Trabajo de las Fuentes de Energía Distribuida (SPIDERWG)), Atlanta, GA, 2 de diciembre
de 2018. [En línea]. Disponible en: https://www.nerc.com/
comm/PC/System%20Planning%20Impacts%20from%20
Dist r ibuted%20Energy%20Re/SPI DERWG_ Scope_
Document_-_2018-12-12.pdf

Biografía
Paul De Martini pertenece al Instituto de Tecnología de California, Pasadena, y Newport Consulting, Sausalito, California.
p&e

ieee power & energy magazine

45


https://gridarchitecture.pnnl.gov/media/white-papers/GridArchitecture2final.pdf http://www.energynetworks.org/assets/files/electricity/futures/Open_Networks/14574_ENA_Open%20Networks%20Report_AW_v9_Web.pdf http://www.energynetworks.org/assets/files/electricity/futures/Open_Networks/14574_ENA_Open%20Networks%20Report_AW_v9_Web.pdf https://www.energynetworks.com.au/sites/default/files/open_energy_networks_consultation_paper.pdf https://www.energynetworks.com.au/sites/default/files/open_energy_networks_consultation_paper.pdf https://github.com/NREL/iiESI.org/blob/master/assets/pdfs/4.1-tepco-energy-systems-integrationiiesi-london.pdf https://github.com/NREL/iiESI.org/blob/master/assets/pdfs/4.1-tepco-energy-systems-integrationiiesi-london.pdf http://www.nysrc.org/pdf/Meetings/DER%20Meeting%2011-7-18/DER%20Workshop_3.2B_Operations_2018-11-07.pdf http://www.nysrc.org/pdf/Meetings/DER%20Meeting%2011-7-18/DER%20Workshop_3.2B_Operations_2018-11-07.pdf https://www.edsoforsmartgrids.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/TSO-DSO_ASM_2019_190304.pdf https://www.edsoforsmartgrids.eu/wp-content/uploads/2019/04/TSO-DSO_ASM_2019_190304.pdf https://www.nerc.com/comm/PC/System%20Planning%20Impacts%20from%20Distributed%20Energy%20Re/SPIDERWG_Scope_Document_-_2018-12-12.pdf https://www.nerc.com/comm/PC/System%20Planning%20Impacts%20from%20Distributed%20Energy%20Re/SPIDERWG_Scope_Document_-_2018-12-12.pdf https://gridarchitecture.pnnl.gov/media/advanced/FEUR_2%20distribution%20systems%2020151022.pdf https://gridarchitecture.pnnl.gov/media/advanced/FEUR_2%20distribution%20systems%2020151022.pdf

Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover3
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