Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 49

estratificado permite una gestión coordinada de la complejidad, la seguridad y las interfaces de control con agregadores
de FED y la flexibilidad para interactuar con los sistemas de
clientes existentes, así como con los nuevos que se sumarán
con el tiempo. Sin una coordinación adecuada, la gestión de
este nivel de complejidad será problemática, ya que muchos
de estos sistemas tienen interfaces no estándar y protocolos
de ciberseguridad inciertos.
La arquitectura y los diseños tradicionales de la ingeniería de distribución son inadecuados para abordar estos
problemas. Las arquitecturas centradas en la información,
enfocadas en los flujos de información, son útiles, pero
no suficientes para abordar los aspectos físicos de la red
moderna. Esto es como tener el diseño de la cañería de una
casa, mientras que la arquitectura de la red es el plano de
la casa completa. Ante estos problemas, Hawaiian Electric
Companies está buscando una arquitectura de red holística.
Un aspecto clave del abordaje estratificado implica la estrategia de control. Hawaiian Electric Companies está aplicando una estrategia de control de dos partes: un abordaje
para condiciones normales de funcionamiento donde las
FED se utilicen como se muestra en el gráfico 2 y controles de respaldo para administrar la salida de las FED a fin
de mantener la confiabilidad del sistema bajo condiciones
anormales de funcionamiento, una necesidad exclusiva de
las redes en la isla de Hawái.
El nivel de interfaces y control operativo involucra varios
tipos diferentes de FED y controles dentro de una arquitectura distribuida y estratificada.
✔ Las FED de comerciantes (o productores de energía
independientes) son activos de proveedores externos
directamente conectados a sistemas de transmisión,
subtransmisión o distribución que brindan servicios
directamente a la red que requieren control directo y

✔

✔

✔

✔

una interfaz de información con las operaciones de la
red. Esto es necesario debido al tamaño anticipado de
los recursos comerciales.
Los agregadores de FED hacen referencia a la agrupación de activos de clientes para proporcionar servicios
a la red. Para las FED agregadas, Hawaiian Electric
Companies no cree que sea necesario controlar directamente cada recurso. Más bien, esperamos establecer
y asegurar una interfaz operativa con cada agregador
para compartir instrucciones operativas y una información apropiada.
Los programas de FED/RD de Hawaiian Electric
Companies indican dónde participan los clientes en
los esfuerzos de las empresas hawaianas de electricidad. Para los programas gestionados por Hawaiian
Electric Companies, puede ser necesaria una interfaz
directa con esos dispositivos y poder controlarlos.
La nueva operación autónoma marca a los clientes
con FED inversoras avanzadas que eligen no participar en un agregador o programa de servicios públicos.
El establecimiento de estándares operativos para FED,
como el 1547-2018 del IEEE, permitirá la funcionalidad autónoma de los inversores avanzados de FED
que no afectarán negativamente a la red. En 2016,
Hawaiian Electric Companies actualizó sus requisitos
de interconexión para incluir partes del 1547-2018 del
IEEE y continuará armonizando los requisitos de interconexión con este estándar.
La operación tradicional hace referencia a las FED
inversoras previas a 2016 sin las capacidades avanzadas de funcionalidad del inversor, como la frecuencia expandida y el período de protección de tensión.
Los sistemas FED tradicionales no serán gestionados
directamente, pero podrán requerir una inversión

Operador de sistema de
energía a gran escala
de HECO
Operador de distribución
de HECO

Agregadores
de FED

Programas de
FED/RD de HECO

Nueva operativa autónoma

FED de comerciante
conectada a la red

Operativa tradicional

gráfico 2. El modelo para el control estratificado de FED. HECO: Hawaiian Electric Companies.
septiembre/octubre 2019

ieee power & energy magazine

49



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 3
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover4
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