Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 68

seguridad del suministro. Esto requiere cambios de control
de carga pasivo a activo y de coordinación para igualar la
demanda y la oferta. La naturaleza distribuida de la gene-
ración y el consumo prescribe un sistema descentralizado
que permite la coordinación y la optimización. Como resul-
tado, se requieren mecanismos de control y coordinación
inteligentes descentralizados, con la ayuda de la teoría de
sistemas complejos y la aplicación de tecnologías de infor-
mación y comunicación (TIC) de vanguardia para enfrentar
este desafío.
Al diseñar un nuevo sistema, se deben considerar todos
los aspectos, como el diseño de mercado, el modelo comer-
cial, la infraestructura y la inversión en TIC, la combinación
y participación de los clientes, y la privacidad y la seguridad.
En consecuencia, se necesita un enfoque de sistema holístico
para evitar el riesgo de activos masivos bloqueados o, peor
aún, fallas masivas del sistema. En este artículo, presenta-
mos la aplicación de la vida real de una pila de software de
red inteligente ascendente desde los dispositivos flexibles en
los hogares hasta los mercados mayoristas y los mercados
de servicios auxiliares en el nivel de distribución reciente-
mente definidos. Este piloto de red inteligente de la vida real,
llamado líderes energéticos (EFR, por sus siglas en inglés),
"Energiekoplopers" en holandés, tuvo lugar en la ciudad
holandesa de Heerhugowaard, ubicada a 40 km al norte
de Amsterdam. Iniciado por Alliander, el gestor de red de

distribución (GRD) local (véase "Roles en el Sistema Eléc-
trico Europeo"), el proyecto piloto investiga la operación de
un sistema eléctrico en el nivel de distribución y un mer-
cado de servicios auxiliares para aliviar las tensiones en la
capacidad del sistema energético para mantener estabilidad
y confiabilidad del sistema.

Mecanismo de control
ascendente basado en el mercado
El objetivo del proyecto piloto era implementar un marco y
mecanismo de control basado en el mercado, con el uso de
estrategias y subastas de precios y ofertas ascendentes, para
coordinar los dispositivos inteligentes de los clientes con el
sistema energético más amplio. Como resultado, se imple-
mentó una visión descentralizada del mercado eléctrico
basada en una estructura de optimización de la descom-
posición estratificada. En este caso, cada capa tendría una
visibilidad limitada solo en los puntos de la interfaz con otras
capas, sin saber qué hay dentro de esas capas, lo que crea
recursos virtuales en cada punto de la interfaz que afecta a
otras capas.
El marco conceptual se basa en el mecanismo de energía
transactiva PowerMatcher, que combina la teoría microeco-
nómica basada en el mercado con la teoría de control del
sistema, confiando en agentes para igualar la demanda y la
oferta. El mecanismo de coordinación utiliza una arquitectura

Dispositivo
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iti v o

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iv o

Lógica
comercial
Agente
objetivo

Oferta
precio
Oferta

e

Ag
en
t

e d e d i s p o s it

precio
Oferta

pos

Dispositivo

e nt

Agente
concentrador

precio
Oferta
Oferta

positivo
dis
de

precio

precio

Dispositivo

Oferta
te

Ag
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Agentel
subastador

precio
Oferta

Agente
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ositivo
disp
de

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Dispositivo

gráfico 1. Una representación esquemática de lo que podría parecer un grupo coordinado de agentes, conectando agentes de dispositivo, agentes concentradores (optativos) y un agente subastador central.
68

ieee power & energy magazine

septiembre/octubre 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 4
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover4
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