Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 82

"

usados independientemente para la evaluación. En cambio, el
concepto de control empresarial reconoce que cada decisión
de control puede tener implicaciones tanto físicas como económicas. El reconocimiento de tales acoplamientos requiere que
se evalúe cualquier decisión de control dentro del contexto de
su valor tecnológico, así como de su implicación en los costos.
Este enfoque integrado nos permite reducir simultáneamente
los costos de inversión de las tecnologías recién instaladas y
concretar ahorros operativos con nuevos mecanismos de mercado y algoritmos de control, mejorando al mismo tiempo la
confiabilidad técnica general de la red.
Como en el caso del control empresarial en general, el sistema de control empresarial de energía eléctrica no es un algoritmo de control específico. Simplemente refleja la estructura
de control tecnoeconómico de la empresa de energía eléctrica
elegida. Por ejemplo, cuando el control empresarial es aplicado
a un sistema tradicional de transmisión de energía eléctrica
de Norteamérica, podría tener una estructura similar a la del
gráfico 1. Un mercado energético del día en adelanto, uno en

tiempo real y un servicio de regulación se asientan sobre una
capa de red de energía física para que los cambios en los parámetros de cualquiera de las cuatro capas resulten en cambios en
el rendimiento técnico y económico del sistema. Dicha estructura se puede personalizar mucho más para abordar los detalles
de una red eléctrica en una región en particular (por ejemplo,
Nueva Inglaterra). En una investigación reciente de EPECS, la
estructura que se muestra en el gráfico 1 se simula con modelos matemáticos de la red de energía física, la regulación y los
mercados energéticos en tiempo real y del día en adelanto. Es de
vital importancia para este artículo el hecho de que la estructura
de control empresarial pueda evolucionar para comprender fundamentalmente el comportamiento tecnoeconómico de la red a
medida que su arquitectura se transforma.

¿Por qué necesitamos control empresarial
en la energía eléctrica?
En última instancia, se necesita el control empresarial de
la energía eléctrica para facilitar la transformación de la

Capa cibernética de controles

PST(t)
REQ

Programación
de fuentes diarias

Equilibrio en tiempo real

"

PREG

PDA(t)

Suministro económico

Compromiso de la unidad
∆PST(t)

REQ
PLOAD

Programación de reserva

REQ

PLOAD

PRAMP
P(t)

Compromiso
de almacenamiento

RRAMP

∆PST(t)
Suministro
de almacenamiento

Servicio
de regulación

PREG

Regulación

Medición
de desequilibrio

Medición
Nivel de regulación de desequilibrio

∆PRT(t)

Capa de red eléctrica física
I(t)

PLOAD : Reservas de seguimiento de carga realmente programadas

"

: Carga neta real

RRAMP : Reservas de rampa programadas realmente

"

P(t)

PREG

PDA(t) : Previsión diaria de carga neta
PST(t) : Previsión a corto plazo de carga neta

: Reservas de regulación programadas realmente

REQ

PLOAD : Demanda de reserva de seguimiento de carga ∆PST(t) : Desequilibrios en la salida de programación diaria
REQ
PRAMP : Demanda de reserva de rampa

∆PST(t) : Desequilibrios en la salida de equilibrio en tiempo real

REQ
PREG

∆PRT(t) : Desequilibrios en la salida de servicios de regulación

: Demanda de reserva de regulación

I(t)

: Desequilibrios residuales en la salida del sistema

gráfico 1. Diagrama de bloques del simulador de EPECS de energía eléctrica.
82

ieee power & energy magazine

septiembre/octubre 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 4
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover4
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