Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 83

Consumidores
Sistema de
distribución

~
Sistema de
transmisión
~

Residencias
Microrredes
Sistema de
distribución

~

~
Sistema de
transmisión

~

~

~

~

Leyenda:
Generación distribuida
Fuentes de energía
del lado de la demanda

gráfico 2. Transición conceptual para una red de energía eléctrica tradicional a una futura red inteligente con un flujo
bidireccional de potencia e información.

septiembre/octubre 2019

operaciones y establece los puntos de ajuste para estas técnicas de control automático. Finalmente, el control terciario se
produce en una escala de tiempo de varios minutos u horas
y, en muchas regiones, implementa las estructuras de mercado mencionadas en el gráfico 1. La integración de las VER
desafía la antigua suposición práctica de que cada técnica de
control puede ser estudiada de forma independiente.
En este sentido, la simulación de control empresarial de
energía eléctrica ha demostrado los beneficios que se obtienen al asumir capas de operaciones de sistemas de energía
interdependientes. En el gráfico 3, se simuló el diagrama de

6,000
Energía (MW)

arquitectura de red. A medida que las fuentes de energía
variable (VER, por sus siglas en inglés), las fuentes de almacenamiento de energía y las fuentes del lado de la demanda
(DSR, por sus siglas en inglés) se arraigan en la red eléctrica,
estas transforman básicamente la estructura y el comportamiento de la red. Por ejemplo (como en el gráfico 2), el sistema de distribución fue estructurado para el flujo de potencia unidireccional desde el sistema de transmisión hasta los
usuarios finales. A medida que más consumidores comienzan a producir su propia electricidad a partir de fuentes de
energía distribuida (renovables), el sistema de distribución
puede verse obligado a evolucionar para permitir flujos de
energía en ambas direcciones. Tal cambio físico también
requiere cambios importantes en la gestión y control de la
red eléctrica. La simulación de control empresarial proporciona un medio para evaluar el comportamiento tecnoeconómico holístico de este sistema integrado a lo largo de esta
transformación en curso.
La integración de las VER es básicamente un fenómeno de varias escalas temporales que afecta a las numerosas capas de toma de decisiones y control de la red. Sin
embargo, la práctica que predomina en las operaciones de
sistemas energéticos y el estudio del control es tratar cada
capa de manera estrictamente independiente. El control primario aborda los fenómenos de estabilidad transitoria en el
rango de 0.1-10 s, aproximadamente. Los ajustes de salida
del generador en esta escala de tiempo se realizan a través de
la implementación de técnicas locales de control automático,
como los controles de generación automática y la regulación
automática de tensión. El control secundario, en la escala de
tiempo de minutos, reside dentro del centro de control de

Carga neta
Clásico
Clásico + GT
Clásico + IT
Empresa

5,500
5,000
4,500
4,000
3,500

0

60

120
Tiempo (min)

180

240

gráfico 3. Impacto de cuatro tipos de leyes de retroalimentación entre capas del mercado de energía en tiempo
real en el rendimiento de equilibrio del sistema de energía
eléctrica. ●: sin retroalimentación de capas más rápidas; ▼:
retroalimentación de nivel de regulación; ▲: retroalimentación de desequilibrios; ■: retroalimentación de regulación
y desequilibrios.
ieee power & energy magazine

83



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover3
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover4
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