Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 92

historia

Adam Allerhand

inicios de la energía CA
las primeras líneas de larga distancia

E

EN 1883, UN SISTEMA DE DISTRIbución de energía eléctrica monofásico de
2,000 V y 133 1/3Hz, diseñado y construido por el inventor francés Lucien
Gaulard y su patrocinador británico
John Dixon Gibbs para el Ferrocarril
Metropolitano de Londres (Metropolitan Railway of London), se extendía a lo
largo de 15 millas y proporcionaba energía eléctrica para luces de arco e incandescentes en cinco estaciones de ferrocarril. En 1884, un sistema de distribución
de energía monofásico Gaulard-Gibbs
de 3,000 V y 133 1/3Hz en Italia (gráfico 1) se extendía aproximadamente a lo
largo de 25 millas desde Turín (elevación 240 m, población 250,000 en 1881)
hacia Lanzo Torinese (elevación 530 m,
población 2,700 en 1881). Fue el primer
sistema de distribución de energía de
CA de múltiples usuarios en el mundo.
Tener un pequeño pueblo a los pies de
los Alpes italianos como destino demostró la practicidad de trasladar la
energía eléctrica a lugares remotos y
escasamente poblados mediante el
uso de la transmisión de CA de alta
tensión. Esto no hubiera sido posible
de manera rentable con el sistema de
transmisión de CC de baja tensión de
Thomas Edison.

En la columna "Historia" de este número, exploramos las primeras transmisiones
de energía y las primeras y segundas líneas de transmisión de energía de CA de larga distancia por Lucien Gaulard y John Dixon Gibbs. Damos la bienvenida a Adam
Allerhand por primera vez a estas páginas de "Historia" de la IEEE Power & Energy
Magazine. Es profesor emérito de química en la Universidad de Indiana, Bloomington. Es autor de aproximadamente 100 artículos de investigación, la mayoría de
ellos en el campo de la espectroscopía de resonancia magnética nuclear. También
es el autor de Una historia ilustrada de la iluminación eléctrica (2016).
John Paserba
Editor Asociado, "Historia"

eléctrica eran la galvanoplastia comercial (a partir de 1840) y la iluminación
de arco (a partir de 1850). No había
suficientes empresas de electrometalurgia y luces de arco para justificar el
amplio desarrollo e implementación de
plantas de energía de estación central.
Aun así, la primera estación central del
mundo, construida por Brush Electric
Co. de Cleveland, Ohio, propiedad de
California Electric Light Co. de San
Francisco, comenzó a ofrecer un servicio de luz de arco con alimentación de
CC a los abonados en 1879. Hacia 1886,

Brush Electric Co. había instalado estaciones centrales de CC para luces de
arco en varias ciudades de los Estados
Unidos. La iluminación eléctrica incandescente fue la fuerza impulsora
para el gran desarrollo y construcción
de estaciones centrales hacia fines del
siglo XIX (véase la tabla 1).
El 31 de diciembre de 1879, Edison
demostró públicamente las primeras
luces eléctricas incandescentes prácticas y el primer sistema de transmisión
de CC para la iluminación eléctrica incandescente. El laboratorio de Edison

Antecedentes
Antes de la invención de las bombillas
eléctricas incandescentes y los motores
eléctricos comercialmente viables, los
únicos usos significativos de la energía
Identificador de Objeto Digital 10.1109/MPE.2019.2921059
Fecha de publicación: 19 de agosto de 2019

92

ieee power & energy magazine

gráfico 1. La línea de transmisión Gaulard-Gibbs de 1884 se originó en Turín,
iba a través de Venaria Reale y Ciriè, y terminaba en Lanzo Torinese. (Fuente:
Google Earth. Notas del autor).
septiembre/octubre 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover1
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover3
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