Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - 98

transformador y la tensión en cada lámpara era inestable; la intensidad luminosa de cada luz aumentaría o disminuiría
a medida que cambiara el número de
luces en el sistema. La fábrica cerró en
1887. El sistema Gaulard-Gibbs estaba
en vías de extinción en 1886, apenas
tres años después de su presentación.
Gaulard y Gibbs reaccionaron de la

(a)

misma manera que cuando los propietarios de una tecnología establecida se
ven amenazados por una nueva tecnología superior: se negaron y demandaron.
En diciembre de 1886, proclamaron
que una demostración de un sistema
de distribución de 4,000 lámparas de
Westinghouse en Buffalo, Nueva York,
era un sistema Gaulard-Gibbs. De he-

(b)

gráfico 7. (a) Una fotografía de Lucien Gaulard, publicada en un artículo francés
acerca de él en 1935. (b) Rue Lucien Gaulard in París. (Fuente: Google Maps)

(a)

(b)

gráfico 8. Los transformadores ZDB de Ganz & Company. (a) El transformador
tipo carcaza. (b) El transformador tipo núcleo. Ambos diseños se describieron por
primera vez en las patentes de Károly Zipernowsky, Miksa Déri, y Ottó Titusz
Bláthy presentadas en 1885 en Austria-Hungría y cinco otros países (Patente de
los Estados Unidos número 352,105, presentada el 7 de mayo de 1885). (Fuente:
Las ilustraciones son de un folleto de Ganz de 1889, coloreado por el autor).
98

ieee power & energy magazine

cho, era un sistema superior inventado
por William Stanley. Los demandaron
cuando sus sistemas fueron reemplazados en Londres y Turín, y demandaron
a Ganz & Co. por infracción de patente.
Las gafas de color rosa, que filtraban la
escrituras en la pared, fueron de rigor
en la cuarta reunión general de accionistas de la Empresa Nacional para la
Distribución de Electricidad por Generadores Secundarios, celebrada en diciembre de 1887. A continuación siguen
algunos extractos de las actas:
Poco después del informe
presentado a los accionistas el
18 de marzo de 1886, el trabajo
de la Empresa se vio seriamente
interrumpido por los infractores
de las patentes de la Empresa.
Actuando bajo el asesoramiento
de los abogados más eminentes y
las más altas autoridades científicas, los Directores han instituido acciones en los tribunales ingleses y extranjeros para proteger
los intereses de los accionistas.
... Los directores sienten que es
su deber atacar dos patentes infractoras en Alemania, y lo han
hecho con éxito .... Aunque el
litigio es extremadamente costoso, es inevitable cuando se trata
de patentes valiosas, pero el sacrificio involucrado tanto en respecto del desembolso de efectivo
como en la interrupción del trabajo rentable probablemente se
compensará en gran medida con
las ventajas futuras.
En febrero de 1888, Gaulard, ahora
sufriendo de una enfermedad mental,
apareció en la entrada del Palacio del
Elíseo en París y pidió ver al presidente
de inmediato, diciendo: "Yo soy Dios y
Dios no espera". Murió en París el 26 de
noviembre de 1888 a la edad de 38 años.
Una tableta conmemorativa en su honor
fue presentada en 1890 en Lanzo Torinese. Una calle corta en París fue nombrada en su honor en 1907 (gráfico 7).
En cuanto a Gibbs, cuando era joven era oficial de caballería. Alrededor
de 1900, cambió su apellido a Gibbes,
otra de las ortografías inglesas de un
antiguo nombre gaélico. Se divulgó de
septiembre/octubre 2019



Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019

Contents
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover1
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover2
Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Contents
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Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2019 - Cover3
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