IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 102

Deepak Tiku

Central hidroeléctrica
de Mohra
la luz del valle

Es realmente gratificante pensar que hoy poseemos una
fuente tan grande y poderosa
de energía eléctrica, una que
excepcionalmente pocos países
o gobiernos tienen. El comienzo
puede, sin duda, ser humilde,
pero promete un gran futuro industrial para Cachemira.
-Maharaja Pratap Singh,
21 de septiembre de 1908.
[The Times de India, "Jhelum
toma las riendas: inauguración
de las obras", Bombay, India,
28 de septiembre de 1908, págs.
7-8].

L

LA ENERGÍA ELÉCTRICA ASEguró su posición en el subcontinente
indio a fines del siglo XIX. Existían
cuatro centrales hidroeléctricas que
operaban en el dominio indio en Darjeeling (1897), Sivasamudram (1902),
las Cataratas Karteri (1904) y Mohra
(1908) (figura  1). El estado indio de
Jammu y Cachemira, a pesar de estar
aislado por altas cordilleras, se mantuvo progresivo y a la vanguardia de la
adopción de tecnologías emergentes.
La energía eléctrica todavía estaba en
sus primeras etapas cuando el estado
decidió enviar algunos jóvenes investigadores a Inglaterra y Estados Unidos
para recibir capacitación en ingeniería
eléctrica durante la década de 1900.
El valle de Cachemira era considerado el patio de juegos del este. El viaje
Identificador de Objeto Digital 10.1109/MPE.2020.2999792
Fecha de la versión actual: 19 julio de 2020

102	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

a lo largo de la destartalada carretera de
montaña y el largo tiempo de viaje actuaban como frenos. Hubo muchas formas modernas de transporte en activa
consideración durante bastante tiempo,
que unían la capital de Srinagar con
el Raj británico, para lo cual Kashmir
Durbar, el consejero del estado, llevó
a cabo estudios detallados. Se pensaba que el uso de la electricidad como
fuerza motriz era la única solución para
estos planes, ya que la tracción eléctrica ofrecía un mejor rendimiento y porque no se contaba con un suministro
sostenible autóctono de combustible.
Un ferrocarril eléctrico de 180 millas
nunca había sido propuesto en ninguna
parte del mundo. Se planeó un elaborado esquema de dragado impulsado
por potencia eléctrica para lidiar con
las frecuentes inundaciones en el valle.
La ciudad de Srinagar contaba con una
de las fábricas de seda de calidad más
grandes y rentables del mundo. Con el
objetivo de modernizarla, se utilizaría
potencia eléctrica para alimentar la
maquinaria y la calefacción, que funcionaban a vapor y agotaban con rapidez la madera de los bosques estatales
que se utilizaba para combustible. Se
pensó que la utilización de corrientes
eléctricas para convertir la abundante
piedra caliza disponible en fertilizante
era una nueva oportunidad comercial
para el estado.
Estas grandes empresas de ingeniería debían su éxito a la disponibilidad
de potencia eléctrica barata. Esto llevó
a la instalación de la primera central
hidroeléctrica en el Valle de Cache1540-7977/20©2020IEEE

mira, en Mohra. La potencia eléctrica
aumentaría la riqueza productiva del
estado; reviviría la antigua y decadente
industria del telar manual; y ayudaría
a desarrollar métodos de comunicación
más rápidos, que mejorarían el estado
de los habitantes. Se produciría una
nueva era de prosperidad para el valle
de fama mundial, con frecuencia devastado por inundaciones, incendios,
terremotos y epidemias. El éxito del
plan de energía hidráulica dependía de

figura 1. La vista posterior de la
central eléctrica de Mohra. (De H.
Homberger, "Central hidroeléctrica
de Jhelum", J. Electricity Power Gas,
vol. 26, n.º 5, pág. 115, 4 de febrero
de 1911).
septiembre/octubre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Contents
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover3
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