IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 108

alto. Se construyó para facilitar futuras
expansiones al acomodar 12 máquinas
más de un tamaño similar. El trabajo
de construcción de la central eléctrica
requirió una excavación importante a
través de rocas duras, que comenzó a
fines de 1905. El trabajo de construcción comenzó a mediados de 1906 y
finalmente se completó a fines de noviembre de 1907. Los soportes de acero
para el techo se adquirieron en Bombay
(Mumbai). La mitad del espacio del
edificio lo ocupaban las ruedas hidráulicas, los generadores y el excitador, y
la otra mitad tenía dos pisos en los que
se instalaron los transformadores y los

interruptores del equipo de la subestación interior, la oficina, la galería de
observación, etc. También se instalaron dos grúas móviles para el manejo
de la maquinaria pesada. Se utilizaron
lámparas de arco incandescentes para
la iluminación de la central eléctrica.
Se utilizaron cuatro tuberías de presión de acero inclinadas (tubería forzada) de 750 pies de largo en la central
eléctrica para transportar agua a cada
una de las cuatro ruedas hidráulicas.
El agua descendía desde la cámara de
carga situada en una meseta a 400 pies
arriba después de atravesar 6.5 millas
en un canal desde Baniar (figura 4). El

diámetro de la tubería forzada se reducía tres veces a lo largo de las tuberías,
que se ensamblaron en secciones de 10
pies. Las cuatro secciones de tubería
de diferentes diámetros podían encajar
fácilmente entre sí, lo que se tradujo en
una gran reducción del volumen de envío y de los gastos de transporte. Estas
tuberías resistieron muy bien el largo
viaje, con cambios en cuatro lugares:
Hamburgo, Bombay, Karachi y Rawalpindi. Llegaron a la central en perfecto
estado. El material para las tuberías
arribó en 1907, hacia el final de la temporada para los trabajos de tendido de
tuberías. Todas las uniones de las tuberías se remacharon y sellaron (con sellador impermeable), excepto una cerca
de la parte superior para permitir variaciones de longitud debido a cambios
de temperatura. El entubado concluyó
el 1 de agosto de 1908, simultáneamente con el canal principal.

Dragado

figura 5. La draga de cuchara Himalaya. (De S. Orling, "The Jhelum power
installation (La instalación de potencia de Jhelum, parte II)", Revisión de GE, vol.
12, n.º 8, p. 356, agosto de 1909).

figura 6. La draga hidráulica Jammu (de S. Orling, "The Jhelum power installation, part II (La instalación de potencia de Jhelum, parte II)", Revisión de GE, vol.
12, n.º 8, p. 359, agosto de 1909). (Foto cortesía de miSci -Museo de Innovación
y Ciencia-, Schenectady, NY; usada con permiso).
108	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

El valle era un enorme platillo de tierra
rodeado de montañas. Cuando el río
Jhelum se desbordaba, creaba marismas en la depresión natural. Siempre
que se producía una lluvia constante
durante un par de días, desde el comienzo de la primavera hasta el final
del verano, existía el temor a inundaciones. Abundante agua descendía desde
las montañas hacia el valle y no podía
salir rápidamente a través del desfiladero, que permanecía obstruido con
rocas a unas pocas millas de Baramulla. Eventualmente, el lago Wular, un
gran tanque de sedimentación natural
río arriba, se llenaría y rebalsaría, lo
que provocaba inundaciones que destruían los cultivos y derrumbaban las
casas. La remoción de las rocas debajo
de Baramulla y la profundización del
Jhelum hasta el lago Wular para evitar
inundaciones fue el objetivo principal
del esquema de dragado. La salida del
río Jhelum, a través de la cual el agua
escapaba a las llanuras, debía ampliarse, lo que implicaría el dragado de 16
pies de profundidad durante aproximadamente 18 millas, con 4 millas a
través de terreno rocoso. Otro objetivo importante era recuperar miles de
septiembre/octubre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover3
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