IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 114

de Mohra a su capacidad máxima, lo
que resultó en la subutilización de la infraestructura (figura 4).
La central hidroeléctrica de Mohra
obtuvo el mantenimiento más eficiente
posible y funcionó bien a pesar de que
toda la maquinaria había superado su
vida útil y sufrido daños durante las
escaramuzas de 1947. Después de medio siglo de servicio, la central eléctrica
todavía funcionaba al 80 % de su capacidad a mediados de la década de 1950.
Las escaramuzas habían cortado el suministro eléctrico a Srinagar, y durante
los momentos más difíciles, el valle se
sumió en la oscuridad.
El dragado se utilizó de forma intermitente para limpiar cieno, rocas y
escombros del río Jhelum hasta 1926.
Las inundaciones anuales de todo el
campo se detuvieron durante algún
tiempo antes de que se abandonara por
completo el dragado. Así, la energía
generada en Mohra se utilizó principalmente para iluminar los pueblos
de Sopore y Baramulla y la ciudad de
Srinagar. El dragado no pareció ser
un recurso efectivo para lidiar con el
problema de drenaje que enfrentaba el
valle. El lecho profundo creado al dragar se volvió a llenar rápidamente con
cieno y sedimentos transportados por
el Jhelum y sus afluentes. El valle de
Cachemira no tenía reservas de carbón
y los bosques no eran capaces de suministrar combustible más allá de las necesidades diarias de la gente, por lo que
quedaba muy poco para las industrias,
como las fábricas de seda, que necesitaban vapor. La electricidad de Mohra

114	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

se utilizó para calentar 2,000 cuencos
de filatura en la fábrica de seda estatal
de Srinagar, así como para alimentar
operaciones de trituración de aceite y
hacer funcionar molinos de lana y descascarado de arroz.
En julio de 1959, el valle se enfrentó a inundaciones sin precedentes. La
central eléctrica de Mohra resultó gravemente afectada y arrasada. Srinagar se sumió en la oscuridad durante
quince días hasta que se restableció
el suministro eléctrico de otra central hidroeléctrica, Ganderbal (1955).
Aunque esta no se vio afectada por las
inundaciones, el canal que la alimenta
estaba obstruido con rocas de diferentes tamaños, lo que requirió extensas
reparaciones. Se decidió trasladar la
central eléctrica de Mohra río arriba
a un lugar más seguro, aunque esto
causaría una pérdida de carga significativa. Hubo que instalar una nueva central, que se puso en marcha en
1962 en cooperación con Ganz, Hungría. La nueva central eléctrica contaba con máquinas de mayor capacidad
(dos unidades a 4.5 MW) y frecuencia
estándar (50 Hz). Uno de los ingenieros húngaros aparentemente perdió la
vida a causa de una descarga eléctrica
durante la puesta en servicio. La nueva central eléctrica de Mohra sufrió
fuertes inundaciones en 1992. Desde
entonces, en su mayoría no ha estado
operativa debido a una variedad de razones, y las autoridades locales hacen
todo lo posible para revivir el proyecto,
incluido un antiguo e icónico canal de
madera restaurado.

Reconocimientos
Gracias a Chris Hunter de miSci -Museo de Innovación y Ciencia-, Schenectady, Nueva York, por proporcionar
imágenes para este artículo.

Lecturas complementarias
H. Homberger, "Jhelum hydro-electric
power plant" (La central hidroeléctrica de Jhelum), J. Electr. Power Gas,
vol.  26, n.º 5, págs. 109-117, 4 de febrero, 1911.
S. Orling, "The Jhelum power installation" (La instalación de potencia
de Jhelum), Gen. Electr. Rev., vol. 12,
n.º 7 , págs. 293 - 298, julio de 1909.
S. Orling, "The Jhelum power installation, part II" (La instalación de potencia de Jhelum, parte II), Gen. Electr. Rev., vol. 12, n.º 8, págs. 356-362,
agosto de 1909.
S. Narayan, The Hydro-electric Installations of India (Las instalaciones
hidroeléctricas de la India). Gwalior,
India: Y.T. Mangaokar, 1922.
B. C. Chatterjee, The Hydro-Electric Practice in India (La práctica hidroeléctrica en la India), vols. 1 y 2.
Benarés, India: Shiva Narayan Chatterjee, 1936.
H. D. Baker, "British India with notes on Ceylon, Afghanistan and Tibet"
(La India británica, con anotaciones
sobre Ceilán, Afganistán y el Tibet),
Dpto. de Comercio, Olympia, WA,
Rep. Consular Especial n.º 72, 1915.
F. Younghusband, Cachemira. Londres: A&C Black, 1909.


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septiembre/octubre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
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