IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 120

en mi opinión (continuación de la pág. 125)
v- ariable (es decir, eólica y solar) suministrada a la red, lo que ha aumentado
la necesidad de un recurso que pueda
actuar como mecanismo de almacenamiento y proporcionar energía cuando
se la necesite. En la actualidad, la generación hidroeléctrica desempeña ese
rol en varios mercados. La necesidad
de integrar la generación hidroeléctrica
con recursos variables crea la oportunidad única para la generación de ideas
innovadoras de energía hidroeléctrica.

Generación de
hidropotencia a gran
escala
Los proyectos de generación
hidroeléctrica a gran escala
(>1 GW) se están volviendo más desafiantes
desde una perspectiva de impacto social
en varias regiones en
todo el mundo. Varios
proyectos actuales en
desarrollo están bajo
presión política y social. Además, se espera que los efectos de
la recesión global más
reciente y la pandemia
actual del COVID-19 obstaculicen aún
más la implementación de los proyec-

tos propuestos en el futuro cercano. A
pesar de que existe potencial a largo
plazo para ampliar el crecimiento de la
hidropotencia a gran escala, el panorama general es bastante incierto.
Se han realizado esfuerzos importantes para mejorar el desempeño de
las centrales hidroeléctricas en funcionamiento durante muchos años. La
implementación de nuevas tecnologías
que involucran sistemas de control
mejorados, el reemplazo de las turbinas existentes a velocidad fija por turbinas a velocidad variable, y el cambio de revestimiento en las tuberías
forzadas existentes para mejorar el
flujo hídrico mejora la
producción de las instalaciones existentes.

En la
actualidad, la
generación de
hidropotencia
desempeña
ese rol
en varios
mercados.

Desarrollo del
almacenamiento
por bombeo

El
almacenamiento
por bombeo que puede
proporcionar almacenamiento a gran escala
para los recursos intermitentes está atrayendo
interés a nivel mundial.
En la actualidad, existen planes para reutilizar las minas que se han agotado. Se
han propuesto proyectos a gran escala

que utilizan minas de oro e hierro, y se
prevé que sean de ciclo cerrado. Las
agencias ambientales favorecen este
tipo de proyectos porque tienden a eliminar los impactos negativos en la vida
silvestre del río, lo que reduce de manera significativa el impacto ecológico en
comparación con el que producen las
instalaciones de almacenamiento por
bombeo de ciclo abierto. Varias partes
interesadas consideran que el uso de
sitios existentes, que han tenido impactos sociales y ambientales, parece una
solución más aceptable que buscar nuevas ubicaciones para los proyectos de
almacenamiento.
En cuanto al almacenamiento por
bombeo a pequeña escala, muchas tecnologías se están probando en la actualidad en diferentes lugares en todo el
mundo. Una aplicación utiliza grandes
tanques de acero con diferencia de elevación para crear la altura diferencial
necesaria y generar electricidad. Shell
Energy, en colaboración con el Laboratorio Nacional Oak Ridge, trabaja en
un diseño de membrana a pequeña escala para una innovadora tecnología de
embalses en configuraciones de ciclo
cerrado.
Los proyectos a pequeña escala
sí padecen limitaciones económicas,
pero las soluciones de almacenamiento
integradas con las fuentes renovables

5,172

6,463

Sudamérica

Asia oriental
y pacífico

2,343
682

906

Europa

África

73

América del
norte y central

Asia meridional
y central

figura 2. La generación de hidropotencia mundial añadida a finales de 2019. (Fuente: "Informe sobre el estado de la
hidropotencia de 2020", Asociación Internacional de la Hidropotencia; usado con permiso).
120	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

septiembre/octubre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover4
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