IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 21

de energía hidroeléctrica. Una de las decisión importantes
es incluir a la energía hidroeléctrica dentro de las fuentes
renovables independientemente del tamaño del proyecto. Al
notar que algunos proyectos hidroeléctricos llevan inherentemente a proporcionar una moderación ante inundaciones y
seguridad hídrica a través del almacenamiento, el gobierno
ha acordado proporcionar, caso por caso, iniciativas de
respaldo económico que proporcionen estos beneficios. La
infraestructura necesaria que permitiría el desarrollo de
los proyectos hidroeléctricos (mayoritariamente en lugares
remotos) también constituye una prioridad. Este artículo
proporciona una mirada sobre los obstáculos para la implementación de planes hidroeléctricos en India, y plantea las
iniciativas esbozadas en la nueva política hidroeléctrica para
atraer la inversión pública y privada y para fortalecer el
sector.

Hidropotencia en India
India está dotada de más de 148 GW de potencial
hidroeléctrico, de los cuales solo unos
45,700 MW han sido explotados hasta el
momento. Si bien los proyectos de energía
hidroeléctrica tienen intrínsecamente un
largo periodo de gestación en comparación
con otros proyectos eléctricos (de no haber
otras variables, una central hidroeléctrica
lleva aproximadamente el doble de tiempo
en ser completada que una central térmica
y alrededor de cuatro veces el tiempo
requerido para que una central solar esté
en funcionamiento), el sector hidroeléctrico en India se ha visto particularmente
afectado por retrasos en los plazos y un
aumento de los costos del proyecto. Estos
factores, combinados con el enfoque del
gobierno desde la década de 1970 hasta la
década de 1990 en el desarrollo de la generación basada en el carbón, han llevado a
una severa erosión de la participación de
la energía hidroeléctrica en la capacidad
total de generación del país. El sector que
aportó más del 50 % de la potencia nacional en la década de 1960 fue diezmado
para convertirse en un actor pequeño, con
una contribución de solamente alrededor
del 12 % en 2019 (figura 1).
A fines de marzo de 2020, la capacidad
instalada total de India era de 370 GW. La
tabla 1 muestra las contribuciones de diferentes fuentes de energía (térmica, nuclear,
hidroeléctrica y renovables) a la capacidad
total junto con la participación de cada
uno de los tres actores principales: empresas de servicios públicos controladas por
el gobierno federal, empresas de servicios
©ISTOCKPHOTO.COM/MUMEMORIES, BACKGEROUND-IMAGEN AUTORIZADA POR INGRAM PUBLISHING

estabilidad de la red debe ser asegurada a través del respaldo
de cargas máximas y servicios auxiliares. Es aquí donde la
energía hidroeléctrica proporciona un rol importante.
Afortunadamente, la India tiene grandes recursos hídricos y terreno variable, lo cual ofrece un excelente potencial
para aprovechar la energía hidroeléctrica. Desafortunadamente, el país ha experimentado un gran retraso en el desarrollo de este potencial. Actualmente, solo se explota alrededor de un 30.8 % de los 148 GW que conforman la capacidad
de potencia hidroeléctrica. Mientras que un pequeño porcentaje adicional está en construcción, una porción importante
de la capacidad disponible aún necesita ser planificada o
desarrollada.
Ya que la penetración de energías renovables intermitentes sucede a un rápido ritmo, existe un argumento sólido en
pos de concentrarse en el desarrollo de recursos de energía
hidroeléctrica de forma responsable y acelerada. Por consiguiente, el gobierno de India ha formulado varias políticas
los últimos años para impulsar el desarrollo de proyectos

septiembre/octubre 2020

ieee power & energy magazine

21


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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover4
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