IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 24

cla de energía, lo cual incluye la inevitable jubilación a
largo plazo de la generación basada en carbón y el aumento de las fuentes intermitentes, pondrían un mayor
énfasis en el uso de centrales hidroeléctricas y de almacenamiento por bombeo para ayudar a suavizar las
cargas máximas diurnas en la demanda de potencia.

✔✔ Estabilidad de la red: La penetración masiva en curso

y propuesta de fuentes de energía intermitentes (eólica y solar) en el sistema eléctrico indio hace que el
desarrollo hidroeléctrico (lo cual incluye la energía
hidroeléctrica con almacenamiento por bombeo) sea
casi indispensable para mitigar los problemas de inestabilidad de la red. Las lecciones aprendidas de muchos países ricos en energías renovables indican que la
energía hidroeléctrica (incluida la energía hidroeléctrica con almacenamiento por bombeo) proporciona
una de las soluciones más sustentables para la capacidad de equilibrio a escala de red.
✔✔ Potencia durante cargas máximas: El papel de la energía hidroeléctrica en el cumplimiento de las demandas
de potencia en los periodos de carga máxima es bien
conocido. Los cambios continuos y futuros en la meztabla 2. Las regiones de la red eléctrica en India.
Región norte

Jammu, Cachemira, Ladakh, Himachal
Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh,
Delhi, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand y Uttar
Pradesh

Región
occidental

Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh,
Maharashtra, Goa, Daman y Diu, y Dadar
y Nagar Haveli

Región oriental

Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, Bengala
Occidental, Sikkim y Andaman y Nicobar

Región sur

Telangana, Andhra, Karnataka, Tamil
Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry y Lakshadweep

Región noreste

Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh,
Manipur, Tripura y Nagaland

Otras ventajas tradicionales
Además de los beneficios descritos anteriormente, el país se
beneficiaría intrínsecamente de las siguientes características
hidroeléctricas específicas.
✔✔ Capacidad de arranque autógeno: Las plantas hidroeléctricas solo necesitan una fuente relativamente
pequeña de potencia para el arranque/iluminación de
una planta inactiva. Esto permite a los gestores del sistema brindar potencia auxiliar a otras fuentes de generación que podrían tardar horas o incluso días en arrancar.
✔✔ Confiabilidad de la potencia: Por lo general, los caudales de los ríos se pueden predecir de forma confiable utilizando datos históricos a largo plazo. Como
resultado, la generación de energía a partir de una
central hidroeléctrica se puede predecir de forma más
confiable que la generación a partir de centrales eólicas y solares.
✔✔ Bajo costo de funcionamiento: Las centrales hidroeléctricas tienen un bajo costo de funcionamiento,
en algunos casos, es menos de la mitad que las centrales térmicas.
✔✔ Larga vida económica: La vida de las centrales en proyectos hidroeléctricos se encuentra normalmente en el
rango de los 40-50 años. De hecho, su vida útil puede
aumentarse hasta 100 años a través de la renovación y

tabla 3. El estado del potencial hidroeléctrico en India.
Capacidad identificada
según el estudio de
reevaluación

Capacidad en
funcionamiento

Capacidad en
construcción

Capacidad en
operación + en
construcción

Capacidad aún
por comenzar
construcción

Región

Total
(MW)

Superior a
25 MW (MW)

MW

%

MW

%

MW

%

MW

%

Norte

53,395

52,263

19,023

36

6,381

12

25,404

49

26,859

51

Oeste

8,928

8,131

5,552

68

400

5

5,952

73

2,179

27

Sur

16,458

15,890

9,689

61

1,060

7

10,749

68

5,141

32

Este

10,949

10,680

4,923

46

1,253

12

6,176

58

4,505

42

Noreste

58,971

58,356

1,727

3

2,300

4

4,027

7

54,329

93

Total

148,701

145,320

40,914

28

11,394

8

52,307

36

93,013

64

Los valores fueron redondeados al megavatio entero más cercano o porcentaje. (Fuente: sitio web de CEA http://cea.nic.in/
reports/monthly/hydro/2020/hydro_potential_region-02.pdf.)
24	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

septiembre/octubre 2020


http://cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/hydro/2020/hydro_potential_region-02.pdf http://cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/hydro/2020/hydro_potential_region-02.pdf

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover4
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