IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 32

Interconector existente
Interconector planeado o
en construcción

Suecia

Vyborg
Back to Back
1,400 MW

Finlandia
NorthConnect
1,400 MW

Noruega
Skagerrak 1-4
1,700 MW

NSL
1,400 MW

NordLink
1,400 MW

Irlanda

Fenno-Skan 1/2
1,350 MW

NorNed
700 MW

Estlink 1/2
1,000 MW

Estonia

Rusia

KontiSkan 1/2
740 MW

Storebælt
Dinamarca
600 MW

NordBalt
700 MW
SwePol
600 MW

solar, Noruega puede importar del
extranjero electricidad renovable
económica, ahorrando así agua
en sus embalses. En épocas de
baja producción de energía eólica
y solar, Noruega puede utilizar el
agua almacenada para exportar
energía a precios más altos. De
esta manera, puede almacenarse
y utilizarse posteriormente el
exceso de producción de energía
eólica y solar.

Sistema hidroeléctrico
en Noruega

Letonia

Lituania

La energía hidroeléctrica ha sido
importante para Noruega desde
sus primeras etapas de elec-
Bielorrusia
Países Bajos
trificación. La primera central
Hansa
Polonia
hidroeléctrica de Noruega, cons-
PowerBridge
Bélgica
Alemania 700 MW
truida por la empresa Laugstol
Brug cerca de la pequeña ciudad
de Skien, comenzó a funcionar
figura 1. Enlaces HVdc que conectan los países nórdicos con otras áreas. NSL:
en 1885 con equipos de genera-
North Sea Link
ción de CC suministrados por
Heyerdahl & Company. En 1890,
un antiguo sistema de alumbrado público eléctrico recibía
tabla 1. Capacidad de generación de potencia
energía de una central hidroeléctrica local en una de las ciu-
de Noruega, según el Instituto de Estadística de
dades más septentrionales del mundo, Hammerfest. En 1891,
Noruega.
una central de energía hidroeléctrica local también colocó
Capacidad total (MW)
35,348
alumbrado público eléctrico en la capital, Kristiania (hoy
Hidropotencia
32,530
Oslo). Otras instalaciones tempranas incluyeron la central
eléctrica de Hammeren de 1899 en Maridalen, una instala-
Potencia eólica
1,710
ción bifásica de 5,000 V de CA; otra cerca de Kykkelsrud,
Potencia térmica
1,108
una instalación trifásica de 5,000 V de CA inaugurada en
1904; y la central hidroeléctrica de Norsk de 1911 en Rjukan,
esta variación creando capacidades de importación de ener- una instalación trifásica de 11,000 V de CA. Estos sistemas
gía para los años de escasas precipitaciones y exportando el hidroeléctricos utilizaban los recursos naturales del país, por
exceso de energía durante los años de mayores precipitaciones lo que, al principio de su desarrollo, se establecieron leyes de
mediante la construcción de interconexiones con los países concesión que regulaban su utilización. Estas leyes han sido
vecinos y enlaces submarinos de CC de alta tensión (HVdc, importantes para el desarrollo estructurado de la industria
de la energía en Noruega.
por sus siglas en inglés) con Europa continental (figura 1).
Era importante desarrollar el potencial hidroeléctrico
Las fuentes de energía hidroeléctrica en Noruega funcio-
nan en sinergia con los activos eólicos y solares de Europa para permitir la industrialización de Noruega después de la
continental. En épocas de alta producción de energía eólica y Segunda Guerra Mundial. La mayoría de las más grandes
Reino
Unido

VikingLink
1,400 MW

Cable Báltico
600 MW

tabla 2. Balance energético noruego (GWh), según el Instituto de Estadística de Noruega.

32	

Año

Producción total

Producción de
hidropotencia

Producción de
potencia eólica

Producción de
potencia térmica

Importación

Exportación

Consumo
bruto

2017

149,402

143,112

2,854

3,436

6,112

21,276

134,238

2018

147,057

139,704

3,877

3,476

8,340

18,489

136,908

2019

134,635

125,796

5,536

3,302

12,353

12,309

134,679

ieee power & energy magazine	

septiembre/octubre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover4
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