IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 35

mercados de la zona síncrona de Europa continental no esta-
ban, desde el principio, armonizados. Hubo, entre otros, dife-
rentes tiempos de cierre de puertas, estructuras de oferta y
resoluciones de tiempo. Es por ello que se produjeron desafíos
para acoplar los mercados a través de los interconectores. En
los últimos 20 años, se ha realizado un esfuerzo importante
para desarrollar mercados eléctricos armonizados en Europa
con el fin de mitigar las preocupaciones en cuanto a la armo-
nización del mercado. Esta armonización del mercado sigue
en curso. La situación ha dado lugar a resultados económicos
que están lejos de ser óptimos en comparación con lo que
podrían haber logrado mercados armonizados para varios de
los proyectos de interconexión.

Caso NorNed

tiene un consumo de energía nocturno relativamente
alto durante el invierno, pero los Países Bajos no, de-
bido a la calefacción a gas.
✔✔ La producción con energía hidroeléctrica rápida y ba-
rata en Noruega complementa la potencia térmica len-
ta en los Países Bajos (cuando se construyó NorNed,
no había energía eólica ni solar en los Países Bajos).
Las figuras 2 y 3 ilustran la situación en el momento
de la construcción de NorNed en 2005. El proyecto se ori-
ginó como una iniciativa puramente de dos países con un
interconector previsto para unir Noruega y los Países Bajos
(figura 1). Sin embargo, debido a la integración de los siste-
mas eléctricos y el desarrollo de los mercados regionales en
paralelo con la construcción, NorNed terminó vinculando el
mercado nórdico con el mercado de Europa central y occi-
dental (figura 3).

La iniciativa NorNed comenzó a mediados de los años 90
como un proyecto entre empresas de generación. Debido
al entorno cambiante por la liberalización de la industria Datos de NorNed
del suministro eléctrico, el argumento comercial del pro- NorNed consta de un cable de 580 km que conecta la esta-
grama cambió, y la construcción nunca comenzó. En 2004, ción convertidora de Feda, Noruega, con la estación convertidora
los GRT de Noruega y los Países
Bajos se hicieron cargo del pro-
yecto y de los contratos previa-
mente negociados con los provee-
Noruega
dores de cables y convertidores.
Habitantes
4.6 millones
La construcción del interconector
Consumo (2005)
125.9 TWh
comenzó en 2005. El cable de
Producción (2005)
137.9 TWh
Capacidad instalada 27,000 MW
NorNed se activó en 2008 y aún
sigue funcionando.
Países Bajos

¿Por qué un cable de
NorNed?
Había varias razones positivas
para construir un interconector
entre Noruega y los Países Bajos
cuando se decidió invertir en el
año 2004. En general, un interco-
nector reforzaría la seguridad del
suministro en ambos países. El
interconector contribuiría a una
mejor utilización de los recur-
sos en los sistemas eléctricos de
ambos países y proporcionaría un
beneficio socioeconómico. Ade-
más, tendría una huella climática
positiva al sustituir la energía tér-
mica por la hidroeléctrica. Cabe
señalar lo siguiente:
✔✔ Noruega y los Países Bajos
se complementan mutua-
mente en la producción y el
consumo de energía.
✔✔ El consumo alcanza su pun-
to máximo durante el día en
los Países Bajos. Noruega
septiembre/octubre 2020	

Habitantes
Consumo (2005)
Producción (2005)
Capacidad instalada

16 millones
114.6 TWh
96.4 TWh
21,000 MW

figura 2. Distribución inicial que une a Noruega con los Países Bajos.

Consumo (2005)
Habitantes
Consumo (2005)
Producción (2005)
Capacidad instalada

24.2 millones
393.9 TWh
394.9 TWh
90,000 MW

Región de Europa central y occidental
Habitantes
Consumo (2005)
Producción (2005)
Capacidad instalada

175 millones
1,246.8 TWh
1,306.5 TWh
280,000 MW

figura 3. Distribución final que une el mercado nórdico con el mercado de Europa
central y occidental.
ieee power & energy magazine 	

35



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover3
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