IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 36

de Eemshaven, Holanda. El cable submarino era, y sigue
siendo, el más largo del mundo. Es un interconector de HVdc.
Tiene una capacidad de 700 MW, con una capacidad anual
de transporte de energía de hasta 6 TWh. Esto es suficiente
para suministrar energía a la mitad de Oslo o Ámsterdam
durante un año. El costo de la construcción de NorNed fue
cercano a los € 600 millones. Statnett (el GRT de Noruega)
y TenneT (el GRT de los Países Bajos) son propietarios cada
uno del 50 % del interconector. La planificación del interco-
nector demoró 10 años, y la construcción, tres. La puesta en
marcha fue en 2008, el primer día del comercio el 5 de mayo
y el primer suministro de energía el 6 de mayo. La figura 4
muestra las estaciones de conversión en el campo llano de
Eemshaven y la zona rocosa de Feda. También muestra el
tendido del cable NorNed.

Resultados de NorNed
En el resto de este artículo, se compararán las expectati-
vas del proyecto con las experiencias reales a lo largo de
los primeros 10 años de funcionamiento del enlace HVdc
de NorNed. En el proyecto NorNed, el plan era acoplar los
mercados holandés y noruego a través de una subasta implí-
cita en la que la energía y la capacidad de transmisión se
comercializaran al mismo tiempo. Durante la implementa-
ción del proyecto, resultó evidente que habría desafíos en el
acoplamiento del mercado. Paralelamente, hubo una evolu-

(a)

ción de los mercado eléctrico. En el año 2000, se estableció
un mercado nórdico común del día en adelanto entre Dina-
marca, Finlandia, Noruega y Suecia. En 2006, se estableció
el denominado acoplamiento trilateral de mercados (TLC,
por sus siglas en inglés) al unirse a los mercados del día en
adelanto de los Países Bajos, Bélgica y Francia.
Los mercados nórdicos y del TLC no estaban armoniza-
dos, y no era posible acoplarlos directamente, ya que tenían
diferentes tiempos de cierre de puertas y estructuras de
licitación. Se intentó encontrar posibles soluciones para el
acoplamiento de mercados, pero en el momento de la puesta
en marcha de NorNed, se tuvo que utilizar una solución de
subasta explícita. La subasta explícita consistió en un pro-
ceso de dos pasos. Primero, se licitó la capacidad de Nor-
Ned, y después tuvieron que producirse los intercambios de
energía en el mercado a ambos lados del interconector. Esta
ejecución en dos etapas no era óptima y, en varios casos,
hizo que la energía fluyera en la dirección equivocada, de
una zona de alto precio a otra de bajo precio.
Durante los primeros años de funcionamiento de Nor-
Ned, se siguió trabajando para establecer una subasta implí-
cita para el comercio a través del cable. En enero de 2011,
se realizó una exitosa subasta implícita de NorNed a través
de la Compañía Europea de Acoplamiento de Mercados, en
Hamburgo, Alemania. Se trataba del denominado acopla-
miento sólido de volumen, lo que significaba que el volumen

(b)

(c)

figura 4. Estaciones convertidoras NorNed e instalación del cable. (a) Eemshaven, (b) Feda, y (c) disposición del cable
NorNed.

100
80

(%)

60
40
20
0
2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

figura 5. Disponibilidad de NorNed por semana (de mayo de 2008 a diciembre de 2015).
36	

ieee power & energy magazine	

septiembre/octubre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
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