IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 49

línea (figura 6). Se requirió tiempo adicional para organizar
el envío del equipo de medición desde el extranjero, incluido
el despacho de aduana. Además, se realizaron pruebas de
rechazo de carga como parte de un estudio hidráulico transitorio en Acaray II.
Se recolectaron datos para ayudar a desarrollar un
escenario de referencia representativo de las condiciones existentes. Una evaluación de la condición del
equipo resultó útil para establecer un plan de inversión
a largo plazo con un tiempo óptimo de reemplazo de
equipo basado en el riesgo de falla y los costos de reemplazo, como calculó el modelo de gestión de activos
durante las simulaciones. Los datos operativos, como la
potencia máxima de salida y la eficiencia de la turbina,
proporcionaron una referencia para evaluar los posibles
aumentos de capacidad o rendimiento y los costos y
beneficios asociados.

figura 7. La configuración de la inyección de colorante en
una balanza de laboratorio en la entrada.

Pruebas de rendimiento

Eficiencia de la turbina (%)

Se probó una unidad en cada estación con la metodología
de dilución de colorante, como se describe en el estándar
60041 de la IEC (Pruebas de aceptación de campo para
determinar el rendimiento hidráulico de turbinas hidráulicas, bombas de almacenamiento y turbinas de bombeo). Se
seleccionaron tres puntos operativos en cada unidad para las
mediciones de dilución de colorante buscando determinar el
flujo absoluto y la eficiencia. Los datos se complementaron
con puntos de prueba de índice tomados en todo el rango de
operación y calibrados frente a las mediciones de flujo abso- figura 8. Una configuración de banco de pruebas en el
luto. Los resultados de la prueba arrojaron curvas de eficien- nivel del piso de la turbina en Acaray I.
cia de las unidades que se utilizaron como referencia para evaluar
la posible mejora que brindaría un
Prueba de eficiencia de Acaray: Unidad 3-30/3/2017
Eficiencia de turbina frente a potencia del generador (normalizado un salto neto de 81.51 m)
proyecto de renovación.
100
Tres equipos estuvieron en el
95
lugar durante la prueba. El primer equipo se ubicó en la entrada,
90
inyectando colorante en el paso de
85
agua a un índice de caudal constante con el uso de una bomba
80
peristáltica, una balanza de labora75
torio y un sistema de adquisición
70
de datos para calcular con precisión el caudal. También se regis65
traron mediciones del nivel de la
60
cabecera en la entrada durante la
prueba (figura 7).
55
El segundo equipo, ubicado a
50
la altura del piso de la turbina de
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
la instalación, operaba el sistema
Potencia del generador (MW)
de adquisición de datos y recupePruebas de índice
Pruebas de colorante
Prueba de índice
raba muestras de agua mediante
el fluorómetro una vez que la concentración del colorante se había figura 9. La eficiencia de la turbina frente a la potencia del generador para Acaray
estabilizado durante un punto de II, unidad 3.
septiembre/octubre 2020	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

49



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
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