IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 72

mutuamente desde ambos lados del enlace (señalado como
①). Por el contrario, un enlace no paralelo de larga distancia
podría no ser capaz de soportar la red de CA tradicional,
incluso aunque las estaciones convertidoras tengan amplias
capacidades de potencias reactivas (señaladas como ②).

El impacto del soporte de la potencia
reactiva de los futuros sistemas de HVdc
integrados en Alemania

Volumen relativo de redespacho de energía W (%)

Alemania tiene metas ambiciosas para aumentar la participación de las fuentes de potencia renovable al 80 % como
parte de la demanda total del país para 2050. El potencial
de potencia renovable a gran escala se encuentra principalmente en el norte con abundantes recursos eólicos en
tierra y marítimos. Sin embargo, debido a que los grandes
centros de demanda se encuentran principalmente en las
regiones sur y oeste del país, se requiere una mejora significativa de la infraestructura de la red de transmisión

existente. La infraestructura de red en las antiguas centrales de potencia convencionales, como las centrales nucleares y de carbón, está prevista como punto(s) de entrada
para al menos cinco corredores de norte a sur utilizando
tecnología de VSC-HVdc integrado con una capacidad de
transmisión total de 10 GW. El aumento de la capacidad
de transferencia de energía de norte a sur busca reducir el
costo de redespacho causado por el impredecible panorama
de generación de energía y el ritmo más lento de expansión
que tiene la red de transmisión. Los costos de redespacho se
producen cuando la potencia activa despachada de las centrales eléctricas debe ser ajustada porque la red de transmisión corre el riesgo de congestionarse y no puede transportar
la potencia programada de la generación a los centros de
demanda. Reducir el volumen y el costo del redespacho de
la energía es una de las principales medidas utilizadas para
reducir el costo de la energía y evitar dividir Alemania en
diferentes zonas de precios.
Los estudios que examinan la necesidad futura de servicios auxiliares en los cambiantes sistemas eléctricos consideran a los sistemas de HVdc como el potencial proveedor
de dichos servicios. El cierre de las fuentes convencionales
de potencia reactiva (que, en el caso alemán, son principalmente centrales nucleares y de carbón) conduce a un déficit
de potencia reactiva en áreas geográficas específicas. Las
capacidades de los convertidores de HVdc podrían compensar esta deficiencia.
Los enlaces de HVdc integrada planificados en Alemania abarcan una larga distancia (300-700 km) en una red de

figura 4. La red de transmisión de CA alemana de 380
kV (los círculos verde-azul son subestaciones de CA, y las
líneas grises sólidas son líneas aéreas o cables de transmisión de CA) y los enlaces de HVdc integrados planificados
(los cuadrados rojos son estaciones convertidoras de HVdc
y las líneas rojas sólidas son líneas aéreas o cables de
transmisión de CC). Imagen cortesía de OpenStreetMap
(https://www.openstreetmap.org/). Datos de la red eléctrica
cortesía del Plan de desarrollo de redes 2017-B (https://
www.netzentwicklungsplan.de/de).
72	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

Maximizar la potencia reactiva
Cuota equivalente de potencia activa/reactiva
Maximizar la potencia activa

100
99.5
99
98.5
98
97.5
97
96.5
96
95.5
95
100

A

B
105
110
115
Clasificación de conversor S (%)

120

figura 5. Resultados del estudio de caso de una simulación de un año completo de la red alemana de 380 kV
prevista para 2030. El eje horizontal representa la clasificación del convertidor de HVdc en comparación con el
caso base. El eje vertical muestra el redespacho de energía
durante todo el año en comparación con el caso base. Las
intersecciones A y B resaltan las clasificaciones del convertidor cuando un escenario se vuelve ventajoso sobre otro.
septiembre/octubre 2020


https://www.openstreetmap.org/ https://www.netzentwicklungsplan.de/de https://www.netzentwicklungsplan.de/de

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
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