IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 90

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a vapor, estos se utilizaron por primera vez para la galvanoplastia, a partir de la década de 1840, y para la iluminación en arcos, a partir de la década de 1850. Habría tenido
sentido elegir la hidroenergía en lugar de una máquina a
vapor en un lugar adecuado, pero el primer caso registrado de tal elección tuvo lugar en Inglaterra en 1878, cuando
se sustituyeron los generadores magnetoeléctricos en gran
medida por generadores dínamoeléctricos. No obstante,
existen varias patentes anteriores a 1878 que proponen
el uso de la hidroenergía para accionar generadores eléctricos con el fin de transmitir energía eléctrica a lugares
distantes del generador: patente francesa 12,524 de 1855,
patente británica 1,386 de 1864, y patentes italianas concedidas en 1866 y 1874.

1878: el sistema hidroeléctrico privado
de William Armstrong
En una reunión de la Asociación Británica para el
Avance de la Ciencia, celebrada el 26 de agosto de
1864, Sir William Armstrong (1810-1900), el recién
electo presidente, pronunció un discurso en el que afirmó lo siguiente:
En las regiones alpinas abundan los saltos de agua
que, con la ayuda de obras artificiales para retener
el agua sobrante e igualar el suministro, producirían miles de caballos de fuerza; y hay por lo menos un gran río en el mundo que, en un solo salto,
desarrolla suficiente energía para llevar a cabo todas las operaciones manufactureras de la humanidad concentrada en su vecindad.
Armstrong, uno de los magnates industriales de su
generación, tenía la riqueza y la experiencia para construir, en su propiedad de Northumberland, lo que se
cree que es la primera central hidroeléctrica. The Engineer (Londres) del 22 de noviembre de 1878 describió
el uso pionero de la energía hidroeléctrica por parte de
Armstrong para encender una lámpara de arco en su
mansión, llamada Cragside (figura 3), a unos 2.5 km
del generador:
William Armstrong está desarrollando una aplicación muy importante de la corriente eléctrica en su
finca, a unas dieciocho millas de Newcastle-on-Tyne. La energía existente en un volumen de agua que
desciende por el desagüe de un lago de Northumberland ha sido aprovechada por la interposición
de una turbina, mediante la cual se dan las revoluciones necesarias a una máquina dinamo-eléctrica.
La corriente eléctrica así generada es transportada
a través de un robusto cable de cobre a la residencia
privada de Armstrong en Cragside (una distancia
de aproximadamente una milla y media). La corriente llega allí a través de una lámpara ideada en
el plan de Siemens.
La figura 4 muestra la modesta central hidroeléctrica
de Armstrong. A fines de 1880, se instalaron bombillas


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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - Cover4
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