IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020 - 98

tabla 2. Primeros sistemas hidroeléctricos comerciales representativos de transmisión de CA.a (Continuación)
Generación
V

Fases

V

Longitud
(km)

Propietario u otra
información

3

3,000

3

28,000

50

Beaumont a Grenoble

Elektrizität AG
(Lahmeyer)

Canadá

3

12,000

3

110,00

82

Provincia de Ontario

Westinghouse

1912

Chile

3

2,300

3

33,000

29

Cental eléctrica del río
Cachapoal

Westinghouse

1912

Brasil

3

2,300

3

44,000

48

Companhia Docas de
Santos

General Electric

1912

Alemania

3

7,000

3

44,000

Corta

Kraftübertragungswerke
Rheinfelden

AEG y Oerlikon

1912

Suecia

3

10,000

3

50,000

72

Central eléctrica
Tröllhattan

ASEA

1912

Estados Unidos

3

2,500

3

140,000

200

Au Sable Electric
Company, Michigan

General Electric

1913

Estados Unidos

3

11,000

3

110,000

230

Keokuk, Iowa, a
St. Louis, Missouri

General Electric

1913

Estados Unidos

3

6,600

3

150,000

384

Pacific Light and Power
Company, California

Westinghouse y
General Electric

Año

País

1911

Francia

1911

Fases

En septiembre de 1880, la central
eléctrica de la fábrica de Wolverine
ya era demasiado pequeña como para
responder a la creciente demanda, y
se instaló una central más grande en
el aserradero de Powers en el canal
de West Side (las estructuras rojas
que están a la izquierda de la figura
6). La Grand Rapids Electric Light
and Power Company contaba con 700
luces de arco y 3,500 luces incandescentes en funcionamiento en 1897.
Había otras dos empresas de servicios
públicos eléctricos en Grand Rapids
en ese momento, Peninsula Light
Power and Heat Company y Edison
Electric Light Company. En 1902, la
recién constituida Grand Rapids Edison Company absorbió las tres compañías.
Una vista actual del satélite revela
que el canal de Powers West Side, la
cuna de la energía hidroeléctrica comercial, ha sido reemplazado por pavimento urbano en lugar de ser incluido
en el Registro Nacional de Lugares
Históricos. Para completar mi historia
de la energía hidroeléctrica en Michigan, volvamos a 1874 y presentemos a
William A. Foote (1854-1915) y a su
hermano James B. Foote (1867-1924).
98	

Transmisión

ieee power & energy magazine 	

1886-1908: los sistemas
hidroeléctricos
de William A. Foote
En 1886, había entre 40 y 50 centrales
de energía eléctrica de CC de baja tensión en Canadá y Estados Unidos que
dependían en gran medida o totalmente de la energía hídrica. Sin embargo,
la implementación a gran escala de la
energía hidroeléctrica tendría que esperar a que la transmisión de alta tensión y a larga distancia fuera rentable,
primero en una escala menor, en forma
de HVdc del siglo XIX (tabla 1), luego
CA monofásica y trifásica de alta tensión, y, finalmente, la HVdc moderna.
Un gran retrato de los hermanos
Foote cuelga prominentemente en la
sede de Consumers Energy de Jackson,
Michigan. En una esquina del retrato,
se muestra la presa de Croton, que fue
construida en el río Muskegon, a unos
80 km de Grand Rapids, y comenzó
la transmisión a 110,000 V en 1908,
cuando todos los demás sistemas de
transmisión eléctrica del mundo funcionaban a 75,000 V o menos (tabla 2).
La historia de la energía hidroeléctrica
a gran escala comenzó con los hermanos Foote. La edición del 17 de abril
de 1915 del Michigan Manufacturer &

Fabricante

Financial Record publicó el obituario
de William A. Foote, con lo siguiente:
Prácticamente toda la energía hídrica del río Kalamazoo que no
ha sido ya absorbida por las fábricas de papel fue desarrollada
por él, y su energía resultante fue
distribuida a las ciudades del sur
de Michigan que se encuentran
a lo largo de la línea del ferrocarril Michigan Central al oeste
de Ann Arbor. Desde el Kalamazoo, sus energías se dirigieron
al Grand, luego al Muskegon, y
más adelante, bajo acuerdos ampliados de financiamiento, al Au
Sable, un maravilloso almacén
de energía contenido en la energía de los saltos de agua.
Los hermanos Foote nacieron en
Adrian, Michigan, y comenzaron a trabajar a una edad temprana para ayudar
a mantener a su familia. En 1874-1875,
William era empleado en un negocio
de madera donde su padre era contador. William se convirtió en socio en
1882 o antes. En 1885, William seguía
siendo socio, y James era ahora el contador. Ese año, William entró en el negocio del servicio público eléctrico al
fundar la Compañía Adrian Electric
septiembre/octubre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2020

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