IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021 - 81

Existen ejemplos interesantes en torno a la evaluación de la
respuesta de frecuencia y las reservas operativas para hacer frente a
eventos " no distintivos " , de naturaleza altamente incierta.
forma segura incluso después de la pérdida de uno o dos
de los componentes principales. Por otro lado, los eventos
extremos durante los cuales pueden fallar múltiples activos
debido a una cascada pueden ser clasificados como N−X,
siendo X mucho mayor a dos. No es posible hacer funcionar
un sistema eléctrico de manera económica para realizar
una operación segura ante tales contingencias N−X y, por
lo tanto, también proporcionar resiliencia. Es por esto que
se necesitan nuevos enfoques operativos y de planificación,
como analizamos más adelante en este artículo sobre el caso
australiano.
Las disposiciones de seguridad de un
sistema eléctrico para gestionar el riesgo
a su funcionamiento
La seguridad de los sistemas eléctricos tiene como cometido
la gestión del riesgo que un evento de contingencia podría
representar para la red que opera de manera satisfactoria
manteniendo la frecuencia, tensión, corriente y funcionamiento
de la central dentro de los estándares o clasificaciones
apropiados. Algunas posibles consecuencias son el
riesgo de una interrupción en cascada de los elementos del
sistema eléctrico, lo cual puede provocar una interrupción
importante del suministro o incluso una caída total del sistema
(apagón del sistema).
Los eventos de contingencia que pueden poner en potencial
riesgo al sistema pueden ser clasificados de la siguiente
manera:
✔ contingencias creíbles: eventos que el operador de la
red [el Operador Australiano de Mercados Energéticos
(AEMO, por sus siglas en inglés) en Australia]
considera que pueden suceder razonablemente, como
la pérdida de un solo elemento de red o una sola unidad
generadora
✔ contingencias increíbles: eventos que se considera
que no podrían suceder en las condiciones imperantes,
Estado
operativo
seguro
Contingencia
creíble
Contingencia
increíble
(incluye HILP
y no HILP)
T < 30 min
Límites
técnicos
Esquemas de
control de
emergencia
(incluye
eventos
protegidos)
Estado
operativo
satisfactorio
Gran disrupción
del suministro
o apagón del
sistema
Restauración del
sistema
figura 1. Disposiciones para un sistema eléctrico seguro, con aplicaciones específicas para el NEM australiano (cortesía
de la AEMC).
septiembre/octubre 2021
ieee power & energy magazine
81

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021

Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021 - Contents
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021 - 2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021 - 120
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - September/October 2021 - Cover4
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