IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 120

El horno era una simple estructura rectangular, como se muestra en la
figura 8. Las paredes y los extremos
eran de ladrillo sin mortero entre los
ladrillos. Las paredes eran de 7 pies de
largo y los extremos de 6 pies de ancho. La altura era de 6 pies. En cada
extremo del horno había una gran placa

figura 9. Regulador de inducción
monofásico. (Fuente:The International
Library of Technology, International
Textbook Company, 1922).

Las patentes
originales
de Nikola
Tesla eran
para circuitos
bifásicos, así
que cuando
Westinghouse
compró estas
patentes,
adquirió
un sistema
bifásico.

de bronce a la que se
conectaban los cables
eléctricos. Estos cables
se conectaban a barras
ubicadas debajo del
piso de operaciones.
Proyectando en el horno desde las placas de
bronce había 60 barras
de carbono, cada una
con una longitud de 30
pulgadas y un diámetro
de 3 pulgadas. La carga, que consta de coque
en polvo mezclado con
arena, aserrín y sal, se
colocaba en el horno.
Las varillas de carbono
permitían un contacto
íntimo para facilitar el
flujo de la corriente,
que producía una temperatura en el rango de
1,700 a 2,500 °C. El ciclo duraba aproximadamente 24 horas. El SiC se desarrolló como un lingote cilíndrico sólido
alrededor del núcleo, con capas radiales que van desde el grafito en el interior hasta varios grados de SiC hacia

figura 10. Transformador de 1,000 hp de la Compañía Carborundum con
regulador de inducción.Nótese que la rueda gira el secundario del regulador
para controlar la tensión. A la derecha está el transformador eléctrico del horno.
(Fuente: The Niagara Falls Electrical Handbook).
120	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

el exterior. Una vez terminado, se derribaban
las paredes del horno,
lo que permitía retirar el
carborundo que se había
formado alrededor del
núcleo para su posterior
procesamiento para diversas aplicaciones, más
comúnmente, ruedas y
papeles abrasivos.
El control del horno
era manual, y el operador utilizaba un regulador de inducción para
cambiar la tensión aplicada. Durante el funcionamiento, los cambios
químicos en la mezcla
reducían su resistencia gradualmente. Para
mantener la potencia de
atracción de la reacción
en un valor más o menos constante (750
kW), la tensión se reducía a medida que
el proceso avanzaba. Un conjunto típico de valores para este temprano horno
era de 240 V, 3,000 A y 100 V, 7,500
A al principio y al final, respectivamente. Un regulador de inducción es como
un motor de inducción que no gira. El
" rotor " se gira para cambiar la relación
del primario (estator) al secundario (rotor), y esto cambia la relación de giro. El
secundario está conectado al primario,
como se muestra en la figura 9. Puede
hacer que la tensión aumente o disminuya, dependiendo de su posición con
respecto al primario.
Junto a la sala de hornos estaba
el edificio de los transformadores.
Inicialmente, solo un transformador
alimentó cinco hornos. En 1904, se
habían instalado 72 hornos. Con 1,000
hp eléctricos (aproximadamente 1,000
kVA), era el transformador más grande del mundo en el momento de su instalación. Tanto el transformador como
el regulador fueron enfriados por aceite, como se muestra en la figura 10,
que muestra el regulador a la izquierda. La rueda gira el secundario del
regulador para controlar la tensión. A
la derecha está el transformador eléctrico del horno.
noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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