IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 128

en mi opinión

Tom Bialek

generación distribuida
aprovechar los servicios de la red

E

EN LAS ÚLTIMAS DOS DÉCADAS,
se ha logrado un progreso significativo para implementar fuentes de energía distribuida (FED) en California.
El Estado Dorado (como se le llama a
California) ahora tiene un proceso de
planificación mucho más abierto donde
las FED se pueden utilizar para servicios de red. Con las herramientas y los
procesos ya instituidos, y dada la cantidad y el tamaño de la implementación
agregada, muchas personas creen que
las FED deberían proporcionar estos
servicios y permitir que las empresas
de servicios públicos difieran grandes
cantidades de inversión en infraestructura tradicional.
La realidad es que esto aún no sucede porque aprovechar las FED para
los servicios de la red no es tan simple como encender un interruptor. Hay
muchos desafíos técnicos que, como
industria, primero debemos superar.
Durante mi búsqueda de respuestas
sobre por qué las FED aún no han alcanzado su máximo potencial, identifiqué algunos, pero no todos, los vacíos
técnicos que deben ser llenados: interoperabilidad de dispositivos, ciberseguridad de dispositivos y sistemas,
identificadores únicos de FED, redes
de comunicaciones, decisiones de participación, desarrollo de sistemas de
gestión de FED (DERMS, por sus siglas en inglés) y técnicas de medición
y verificación. Ciertamente, existen
muchos otros desafíos no técnicos poIdentificador de Objeto Digital 10.1109/MPE.2020.3014750
Fecha de la versión actual: 16 de octubre de 2020

128	

ieeepower & energy magazine	

tenciales, como el desarrollo de modelos comerciales de proveedores y la
reestructuración de compensaciones e
incentivos tradicionales para enfocar la
implementación en las necesidades de
la red de ubicación.

Desafíos de la red
asociados con las FED
Problemas de
interoperabilidad
Los ingenieros de San Diego Gas and
Electric (SDG&E) observaron problemas de interoperabilidad entre dispositivos al intentar utilizar sistemas
fotovoltaicos (FV) con inversores inteligentes para proporcionar un servicio
de regulación de tensión. En nuestro
laboratorio de pruebas, dos inversores
diferentes del mismo modelo y fabricante funcionaron de manera diferente
cuando se probaron. En otro caso, diferentes dispositivos de almacenamiento
de energía respondieron a las solicitudes de carga y descarga de formas
muy diferentes. Al ejecutar programas
operativos predefinidos, también observamos que algunos dispositivos regresaban a un estado inicial antes de
ajustarse a los puntos de ajuste recién
programados. Finalmente, se requieren
interfaces personalizadas para comunicarse con cada dispositivo y controlarlo.

Ciberseguridad
Según una revisión de los sistemas las
FED instalados en el territorio de servicio de SDG&E donde vivo y trabajo,

el 58 % de todos los sistemas utilizan
un inversor de solo dos fabricantes.
Ambos aprovechan la nube y la conexión a Internet del cliente para monitorear y proporcionar actualizaciones de
firmware, y los comandos dentro del
inversor utilizan protocolos Modbus.
A medida que aumentan los números
agregados, también aumenta el número
de vectores de ataque. En California,
hay aproximadamente 8,000 MW de
sistemas FV en tejados instalados. La
ciberseguridad de los dispositivos y del
sistema es fundamental, ya que la red
funciona en un entorno FED de alta penetración.

Falta de un identificador único
Para que una FED proporcione un servicio, se debe realizar una solicitud que
identifique de manera única la ubicación del dispositivo que se espera que
realice ese servicio. El estándar 2030.5
del IEEE para la implementación del
perfil de inversores inteligentes comunes proporciona una estructura y un
método de ubicación de dispositivos
para dar servicio a los transformadores. No obstante, el aprovisionamiento
de este método de identificación aún no
se ha incluido como parte de las nuevas
interconexiones de sistemas.

Inversores tradicionales
Hasta el 8 de septiembre de 2017, todas las instalaciones FED contaban
con un inversor tradicional diseñado sin comunicaciones críticas ni
(continúa en la pág. 125)
noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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