IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 25

potenciales implicaciones de seguridad del sistema eléctrico en el funcionamiento de la energía FVD durante
posibles eventos de contingencia. El operador de la red de distribución del estado observa y gestiona los cambios
de tensión y flujo en todo el sistema. Otros equipos continúan su trabajo desarrollando planificaciones innovadoras y enfoques operativos, desde nuevos estándares de interconexión y límites de exportación flexibles hasta centrales eléctricas virtuales (VPP, por sus siglas en inglés), para gestionar la siempre creciente penetración de los
sistemas FVD y, cada vez en mayor medida, de los sistemas de almacenamiento de energía por baterías (BESS,
por sus siglas en inglés) en el hogar y de los vehículos eléctricos (VE). En tanto, los consumidores del estado
contemplan su última factura eléctrica y piensan en sus crecientes preocupaciones respecto al clima, observando
el espacio vacío de sus tejados y considerando invertir ellos mismos en un sistema FVD.

Situación actual
El National Electricity Market (NEM) australiano presta servicios a aproximadamente el 90 % de la población
a través de uno de los sistemas eléctricos interconectados más extensos del mundo (figura 1). El sector de la
electricidad fue reestructurado durante fines de la década de 1990, y cuenta con un mercado mayorista al
contado y competencia minorista regional. Los proveedores del servicio de redes de
transmisión y los proveedores del servicio de redes de distribución (DNSP, por
sus siglas en inglés) son monopolios regulados, separados de los generadores y
proveedores que compran electricidad del mercado al contado y la venden a los
consumidores a través de acuerdos de mercado minorista no regulado. AEMO
es operador tanto de sistemas independientes como de mercados en las costas este
y oeste de Australia.

Uso de energía FVD
Los bajos precios de sistemas FV, los excelentes recursos solares y una significativa proporción de viviendas independientes en Australia, junto con los altos precios de la electricidad al por menor, han generado una notoria adopción de energía
FVD durante la última década. Australia ahora cuenta con la mayor proporción de
viviendas con sistemas FVD a nivel mundial, es decir, aproximadamente una de
cada cuatro viviendas (todas casas, sin incluir departamentos) tiene un equipo
FVD instalado, totalizando más de 2.2 millones de sistemas. El estado de
Queensland tiene la mayor penetración de sistemas FVD, seguido de cerca por
Australia Meridional (figura 1). Sin embargo, la relativa contribución de los sistemas FVD a la demanda es mucho mayor en Australia Meridional, dada su menor
carga industrial y clima templado, en comparación con Queensland. El DNSP de
Australia Meridional es SA Power Networks (SAPN). En Queensland, existen dos
DNSP. Energex presta servicios al sureste metropolitano y Ergon Energy Network a
los consumidores de áreas más rurales del norte y del sur. Ambas son parte del Grupo
Energy Queensland.
Aunque la mayoría de los sistemas FVD en Australia son pequeños (con capacidades de menos de 30 kW de CA), hay un mercado emergente en el rango
de 30-200  kW para los sitios comerciales e industriales. Entre 2018 y 2019,
el número de nuevas solicitudes de energía FVD aprobadas solo en Australia
Meridional aumentó en un 50  %, y en general se espera que la alta tasa de
adopción de energía FVD continúe. En el NEM, AEMO ha proyectado que la
generación de energía FVD se duplique con creces hacia 2039-2040 en todas
las regiones de mercado del NEM bajo un escenario de uso central y que al menos

Por Naomi Stringer, Anna Bruce, Iain MacGill,
Navid Haghdadi, Peter Kilby, Jacqui Mills,
Taru Veijalainen, Matt Armitage y Nigel Wilmot
noviembre/diciembre 2020 	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

25



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 5
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 8
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 86
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 92
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 97
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 104
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 108
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 113
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 118
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 120
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 128
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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