IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 34

de subtransmisión (que suelen estar restringidas por diseños
de cambiadores de tomas tradicionales). Aunque los flujos
inversos se perciban de manera más aguda en la red de baja
tensión, sus impactos se extienden rápidamente a los sistemas
de subtransmisión y transmisión, así como hacen aumentar
las preocupaciones por la seguridad del sistema del AEMO.
La eficiencia reducida de los esquemas de desprendimiento
de carga por subfrecuencia es una preocupación importante,
junto con la gestión de potencia reactiva, ambas exacerbadas
por los bajos niveles de visibilidad y control. Por lo tanto,
es fundamental que las estrategias adoptadas consideren los
impactos en todo el sistema eléctrico.

Soluciones
Incentivo a la carga

Cambiar la demanda de agua caliente para que coincida con
los periodos de generación solar máxima es una opción, pero
este enfoque presenta obstáculos: en Australia Meridional,
esto generalmente requiere una visita al sitio para reprogramar de forma manual el temporizador o medidor en la caja
del medidor de cada cliente. Además, es probable que la cantidad de carga disponible sea suficiente solo para aplazar, en
lugar de resolver, el asunto relativo a la demanda mínima.
Otro enfoque que se está siguiendo en Australia Meridional
es la introducción de una nueva tarifa de red de " absorción
solar " por tiempo de uso a partir de julio de 2020 que incluye

una tarifa valle de bajo costo durante el mediodía para alentar
a los clientes a cambiar su carga al colector solar. La efectividad de esto dependerá, en parte, de la medida en que los
proveedores de energía opten por aplicar esta señal de precios
en sus tarifas minoristas.
Límites de exportación flexibles

Actualmente, todas las unidades de generación integradas
con un límite de exportación de 5 kW o menos son aprobadas de manera automática para que se conecten en la red de
SAPN. Un análisis de SAPN y EA Technology indica que
este enfoque no es sostenible, incluso con un modo de voltio-var exigido para todas las instalaciones nuevas. La figura
13 muestra la cantidad aproximada de generación de energía
FVD en kilovatios por consumidor que se puede incorporar
en la red de SAPN antes de que se superen los límites térmicos y de tensión en diferentes tipos de red, e incluye los niveles actuales y previstos de penetración de energía FVD. El
modelado muestra que los límites de tensión normalmente
se sobrepasan antes que los límites térmicos en todos los
tipos de red y, de hecho, las tensiones ya superan los niveles
permitidos en algunos casos.
Debido al volumen cada vez mayor de conexiones
extensas de generadores de más de 30  kW y al consecuente efecto de sobrepasar los límites de la N−1 inversa
de la subestación de conexión, los estándares de SAPN
de interconexión de generadores requieren un esquema de

2018, Real

Rural, único cliente (2 %)

Límite de exportaciones
actual de 5 kW
Previsión para 2025
(adopción neutra)
Límite de tensión
Penetración de energía FV
Límite térmico

Subterráneo antiguo (2 %)
Refugio pequeño (2 %)
Pueblo rural, pequeño (3 %)
Rural, dos a cuatro clientes (6 %)
Pueblo rural, grande (7 %)
Refugio grande (11 %)
Pueblo rural, mediano (15 %)
Subterráneo nuevo (24 %)
Refugio mediano (26 %)
0

1

2

3
4
5
6
7
Capacidad de energía FVD por cliente (kWp)

8

9

10

figura 13. Las salidas del modelado para la capacidad de almacenamiento de SAPN. Las barras anaranjadas indican la
capacidad de energía FVD por cliente que las redes de cada tipo pueden almacenar antes de que se superen los límites
de tensión. La longitud de la barra refleja la variabilidad estadística entre las redes individuales de un tipo dado. Las barras
púrpuras representan la cantidad de generación de energía FVD por cliente antes de que se alcancen los límites térmicos
debido a un flujo de corriente inverso. Las barras verdes muestran 1) el nivel promedio de la penetración de energía FVD
en 2018 y 2) el nivel previsto de penetración para 2025. Para más detalles, consulte " Caso comercial de gestión de baja
tensión " en la sección " Lecturas Complementarias " . kWp: kilovatios pico.
34	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
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