IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 37

cubierto preocupaciones relativas al cumplimiento de los
inversores. Un examen de sistemas FVD a nivel individual
(no en conjunto) reveló que al menos el 15 % de los sistemas
en Queensland y el 30 % de los sistemas en Australia Meridional no parecía llevar a cabo una respuesta de F-W. Las
altas tasas de incumplimiento aumentan la preocupación en
cuanto a si los inversores pueden realizar funciones clave,
como soporte a la red por subfrecuencia, y si las realizarán
cuando se requiera.

Estudio del caso de las perturbaciones de frecuencia

El estándar actual de interconexión de inversores requiere
una caída de la sobrefrecuencia o una respuesta de frecuencia en vatios (F-W). En el periodo en que se publicó el
estándar, en 2015, era un requerimiento de clase mundial,
ya que la respuesta de F-W generalmente no era obligatoria
para los sistemas de pequeña escala. Un análisis de datos
operativos reales de más de 3,000 sistemas FVD durante
una perturbación importante del sistema ocurrida el 25 de
agosto de 2018 ha proporcionado información única sobre el
rendimiento de los inversores de esta función de F-W. Los
sistemas FVD instalados bajo el estándar actual (sistemas
" posteriores a 2016 " ) parecen haber llevado a cabo la respuesta de F-W de forma adecuada, en conjunto (figuras 15
y 16), proporcionando evidencia de que los sistemas FVD
funcionaban de manera rápida, autónoma y en conjunto para
ayudar a mantener la seguridad del sistema eléctrico. Esta
especie de respuesta útil de las FED se está haciendo más
importante en regiones como Australia Meridional, donde
existe una interconexión limitada con las áreas vecinas y
la demanda se satisface cada vez más gracias a los sistemas
FVD durante algunos periodos. Sin embargo, el evento de
separación del 25 de agosto de 2018 también dejó al des-

1.00

Las respuestas de los sistemas FVD a las perturbaciones importantes de tensión del sistema también suponen
riesgos considerables. Se ha observado una reducción del
30-40  % en la generación de energía FVD en conjunto
tras perturbaciones importantes de tensión en el NEM,
incluido un evento ocurrido en Australia Meridional
el 3 de marzo de 2017 después de la pérdida del generador de
gas de Torrens Island (vapor subcrítico, capacidad nominal:
1,280 MW). Durante este evento, la tensión cayó a 0.1 por
unidad en una fase del área de Torrens Island, próxima al
centro de carga principal de Adelaida. Cabe señalar que las
condiciones durante la perturbación fueron similares a las

51
Frecuencia: <50.15 Hz por 60 s iniciando a las
Frecuencia: >50.25 Hz a las 1:11:49 p.m.,
1:23:59
p.m.
y
terminando
a
las
1:24:59
p.m.
con un pico inicial en 50.45 Hz a las 1:11:51 p.m.
Segundo pico: 50.46 Hz
50.5
a las 1:20:37 p.m.

0.90

50

0.80

49.5
Frecuencia mínima: 49.21 Hz a las 1:11:46 p.m.

0.70

Frecuencia (Hz)

Potencia normalizada
(MW/MW a las 1:10:55 p.m.)

1.10

Estudio del caso de los perturbaciones de tensión

49

0.60
1:34 p.m.

1:32 p.m.

1:30 p.m.

1:28 p.m.

1:26 p.m.

1:24 p.m.

1:22 p.m.

1:20 p.m.

1:18 p.m.

1:16 p.m.

1:14 p.m.

1:12 p.m.

1:10 p.m.

48.5

Australian Eastern Standard Time
Respuesta especifica de estándar
AS/NZS4777.2:2015
Potencia observada: <30 kW, 1,557 sitios

Respuesta especificada de estándar
AS/NZS4777.2:2015 (1 min. promedio)
Potencia observada: 30-100 kW, 68 sitios

Frecuencia de Australia Meridional

50.25 Hz

50.15 Hz

figura 16. Respuesta de caída de sobrefrecuencia a inversores posterior a 2016 de Australia Meridional durante el evento
del 25 de agosto de 2018. La potencia promedio en conjunto se compara con un perfil especificado. Para más detalles,
consulte " Integración técnica de fuentes de energía distribuida " en la sección " Lecturas Complementarias " .
noviembre/diciembre 2020 	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

37



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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