IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 41

respuestas de VPP a eventos de contingencia de FCAS y
energía en Australia Meridional.
Respuesta del 10 de diciembre de 2019 a un
evento de subfrecuencia
El 10 de diciembre de 2019, el NEM experimentó un evento
de frecuencia alta (>50.15  Hz) y baja (<49.85  Hz) con una
diferencia de 45 minutos. La VPP de Australia Meridional
respondió inmediatamente, en ambos casos, cargando primero sus baterías para reducir la frecuencia del sistema y
luego descargando las baterías para aumentar la frecuencia
del sistema, como se muestra en la figura 18.
Respuesta del 9-15 de enero de 2020 a
precios de la energía al contado
La observación de las medidas de las VPP durante el transcurso de una semana proporciona evidencia de que las VPP
responden a las señales de mercado de la energía. Esto queda
claro en la figura 19, donde se puede observar la precarga
anticipándose al aumento de precios y la descarga cuando
los precios están altos. Como resultado, el sistema eléctrico
cuenta con el soporte de la provisión energía adicional según
sea necesario. Estos eventos muestran que las VPP pueden
beneficiar a los siguientes grupos:
✔✔ consumidores participantes, al compartir el valor obtenido a través de la participación en FCAS y al responder a los precios del mercado de la energía
✔✔ todos los demás consumidores, al generar más competencia para reducir los precios y, si las VPP escalan lo
suficiente, potencialmente aplazar/desplazar la necesidad de activos de generación a gran escala.
Siguientes pasos

Las demostraciones de Australia continuarán brindando
conocimientos en relación con la efectividad de las VPP
para agregar valor al sistema eléctrico. La incorporación
de otros participantes enriquecerá el conjunto de datos
actual y permitirá que se lleven a cabo más análisis y se
logre una comprensión más profunda. Se extraerán conclusiones para informar sobre otros ensayos relacionados
con las FED y recomendaciones para futuras reformas
del mercado.

Viendo hacia delante
Lleve su mente al futuro, en un luminoso día de primavera
en la década de 2030. Es probable que la generación de sistemas FVD sea incluso una visión más familiar en la mayoría de las principales ciudades australianas, junto con BESS
y un parque de VE. Tal vez Adelaida, la capital costera de
Australia Meridional, ya no tenga un monopolio en romper
récords de demanda mínima de electricidad. Mientras se
aproxima el mediodía solar, los sistemas de distribución de
todo el país se convierten en exportadores netos, y los flujos
inversos son comunes. Sin embargo, la red va sobre ruedas
y el sistema se mantiene estable y seguro. Se transmiten los
noviembre/diciembre 2020 	

límites dinámicos de la red de distribución y se gestiona la
tensión mientras las FED brindan soporte a la red. Los consumidores obtienen recompensas por el papel que juegan
las FED, las VPP responden a las necesidades del sistema
eléctrico y los beneficios se comparten entre la población.
De manera muy ocasional, una falla hace tambalear a la tensión o la frecuencia, pero el sistema responde rápidamente
y, como se espera, restablece las operaciones. Los consumidores vuelven a ocuparse de sus cosas, raramente detectan
los nuevos sistemas o los que están en evolución, ya que la
red del futuro se adapta sin problemas a la cotidianidad de
la vida. Tal vez, este mundo está incluso más cerca de lo
esperado, con Australia a la vanguardia de la integración de
FED y con impactos que ya se perciben en todo el sistema
eléctrico. A medida que un ajetreado verano australiano se
acerca a su fin, los desafíos y las oportunidades que brindan
las FED no disminuyen, y las colaboraciones en la industria
son tan importantes como siempre.

Reconocimientos
Nos gustaría agradecer enormemente las contribuciones del
equipo de SAPN, que proporcionó aportes valiosos, orientación y comentarios durante el desarrollo de este artículo.

Lecturas complementarias
" Technical integration of distributed energy resources " (Integración técnica de fuentes de energía distribuida), AEMO,
Melbourne, Australia, abr. de 2019. [En línea]. Disponible en:
https://www.aemo.com.au/-/media/Files/Electricity/NEM/
DER/2019/Technical-Integration/Technical-Integration
-of-DER-Report.pdf
" AEMO Virtual Power Plant demonstration: Knowledge sharing report #1 " (Demostración de centrales eléctricas virtuales del AEMO: informe #1 de difusión de conocimientos), AEMO, Melbourne, Australia, mar. de 2020.
[En línea]. Disponible en: https://aemo.com.au/-/media/
f iles/elect r icity/der/2020/aemo -k nowledge-sha r ing
-stage-1-report.pdf?la=en
" Renewable Integration Study Stage 1 Appendix A: High
penetrations of distributed solar PV " (Etapa 1 del estudio de
integración de energías renovables, Apéndice A: altas penetraciones de energía solar FV distribuida), AEMO, Melbourne, Australia, abr. de 2020. [En línea]. Disponible en: https://
aemo.com.au/-/media/files/major-publications/ris/2020/risstage-1-appendix-a.pdf
" Distribution annual planning report " (Informe de planificación anual de distribución), Energex, Brisbane, Australia, dic. de 2019. [En línea]. Disponible en: https://www
.energex.com.au/about-us/company-information/company
-policies-And-reports/distribution-annual-planning-report
SA Power Networks, " Low voltage management business
case " (Caso comercial de gestión de baja tensión), Adelaida,
Australia, ene. de 2019. [En línea]. Disponible en: https://
www.aer.gov.au/system/files/Attachment%205%20Part%20
7%20-%20Future%20Network.zip
ieee power & energy magazine 	

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https://www.aemo.com.au/-/media/Files/Electricity/NEM/DER/2019/Technical-Integration/Technical-Integration-of-DER-Report.pdf https://www.aemo.com.au/-/media/Files/Electricity/NEM/DER/2019/Technical-Integration/Technical-Integration-of-DER-Report.pdf https://www.aemo.com.au/-/media/Files/Electricity/NEM/DER/2019/Technical-Integration/Technical-Integration-of-DER-Report.pdf https://aemo.com.au/-/media/%20files/electricity/der/2020/aemo-knowledge-sharing-stage-1-report.pdf?la=en https://aemo.com.au/-/media/%20files/electricity/der/2020/aemo-knowledge-sharing-stage-1-report.pdf?la=en https://aemo.com.au/-/media/%20files/electricity/der/2020/aemo-knowledge-sharing-stage-1-report.pdf?la=en https://aemo.com.au/-/media/files/major-publications/ris/2020/ris-stage-1-appendix-a.pdf https://aemo.com.au/-/media/files/major-publications/ris/2020/ris-stage-1-appendix-a.pdf https://aemo.com.au/-/media/files/major-publications/ris/2020/ris-stage-1-appendix-a.pdf https://www http://energex.com.au/about-us/company-information/company https://www.aer.gov.au/system/files/Attachment5Part7-FutureNetwork.zip https://www.aer.gov.au/system/files/Attachment5Part7-FutureNetwork.zip https://www.aer.gov.au/system/files/Attachment5Part7-FutureNetwork.zip

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