IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 45

✔✔ Manejo de datos asíncronos y acciones de control:

es necesario utilizar datos de diversas mediciones y
fuentes asíncronas, mientras que la toma de decisiones
distribuida conduce a acciones de control asíncronas.
✔✔ Robustez: esto abarca tanto la confiabilidad como la
resiliencia, donde la confiabilidad es la tolerancia a las
fallas, y la resiliencia es la capacidad de recuperarse
de un estado fallido. Estos sistemas de control también
deben resultar robustos ante los fallos e interrupciones
prolongadas de comunicaciones y a las perturbaciones
a gran escala.
✔✔ Escalabilidad: los algoritmos de control deben funcionar de forma escalable para asegurar el control de
cientos de millones de dispositivos.
Analizaremos detalladamente estas características en las
siguientes secciones.

Funcionamiento en tiempo real

ejemplo, con comunicaciones de dispositivo a dispositivo o de celda a celda, así como con el paso de
mensajes intracelulares), se necesitan múltiples rondas
de comunicaciones para converger en soluciones (posiblemente óptimas). Observe que las tareas de optimización relacionadas con las AEG son notablemente
diferentes de los entornos tradicionales en los que los
sistemas de energía se optimizan a nivel mayorista
utilizando objetivos económicos y de mercado. En el
funcionamiento tradicional de los sistemas de gran
porte, se despachan unos cuantos generadores a gran
escala, y la carga neta no controlable varía lentamente.
Ese funcionamiento es incompatible con las AEG que
incluyen una integración masiva de las FED o cuyos
modelos de optimización requieren representaciones
precisas de los flujos de potencia de CA dentro de la
región de controlabilidad de las FED. En los sistemas
tradicionales de gran porte, los problemas de optimización son no convexos, no deterministas y polinómicos NP-difícil. Por lo tanto, es posible que no puedan

Uno de los principales desafíos de las AEG es el desarrollo y la aplicación de métodos de optimización y control en
tiempo real. Usamos el término
tiempo real para indicar que los
puntos de ajuste de la potencia en
las FED se actualizan dentro de
100,000,000 s
cada celda en una escala de tiempo
de segundos o subsegundos. Las
redes eléctricas deben mantener
el equilibrio de energía en cada
intervalo. Esto es necesario para
maximizar los objetivos opera1,000,000 s
tivos y económicos y, al mismo
tiempo, hacer frente a la variabilidad de las condiciones ambientales y los activos de energía no
controlables y lograr la coordinación entre celdas para garantizar
un funcionamiento confiable en
100,000 s
todo el sistema. No obstante, la
solución a los problemas de optimización para la convergencia
cada segundo o cada pocos segundos ha sido poco práctica debido a
los siguientes desafíos:
✔✔ Análisis de complejidad y
1,000 s
convergencia. En el caso
de las redes de gran escala,
la complejidad informática
de un sistema definido cen1-100 s Renovable Convencional
VE
Industrial Comercial Residencial
tralmente podría impedir la
solución de los problemas
de optimización en los pla- figura 2. Las AEG forman un sistema de control jerárquico distribuido que integra
zos requeridos. Cuando un las tecnologías individuales en una estructura celular al sistema eléctrico de gran
problema de optimización porte. La escala del lado indica el número de tecnologías controlables que se ven
se resuelve de manera dis- a lo largo del nivel inferior. El nivel más bajo representa las ubicaciones de varias
tribuida y/o jerárquica (por generaciones, almacenamiento y cargas.
noviembre/diciembre 2020	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

45



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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