IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 48

la convergencia puede ser tediosa, pero se acepta ampliamente que los algoritmos basados en gradientes pueden
aplicarse de manera asíncrona.

Robustez
En el contexto de las AEG, la robustez abarca tanto la confiabilidad como la resiliencia. La confiabilidad es la propiedad de ser tolerante a los fallos, y la resiliencia es la capacidad de recuperarse de un fallo a un estado operativo. Para
un funcionamiento confiable, se puede utilizar el análisis
de estabilidad en múltiples escalas de tiempo. La resiliencia a las caídas de las comunicaciones y el funcionamiento
asíncrono deben establecerse analíticamente mediante la
estabilidad pertinente de entrada a estado y monitoreando
los resultados. En otras palabras, las AEG deberían poder
seguir funcionando incluso en presencia de estos fallos/
errores. Matemáticamente, se han desarrollado algoritmos
de optimización iterativa para funcionar con errores en
sus parámetros estimados, como los gradientes. De hecho,
se puede demostrar que la pérdida de un paquete conduce
al cómputo de pasos de gradientes primales o duales con
información obsoleta. Así, las celdas que pueden pasar de
un modo insular a un modo conectado a la red mayor pueden seguir funcionando en medio de fallas y/o amenazas a
la red. Estas propiedades pueden modelarse como restric-

ciones temporales en el problema de optimización subyacente. Análogamente, debe habilitarse el funcionamiento
flexible, en el que una celda (o la porción de una celda) pasa
a un ajuste de control autónomo durante una interrupción
prolongada de las comunicaciones.

Escalabilidad
La figura 5 ilustra una arquitectura en la que se producen
comunicaciones entre celdas cuando se realiza un control
distribuido y/o jerárquico. Como se ha mencionado anteriormente, los algoritmos de control distribuidos y jerárquicos
son escalables y permiten el control de millones de dispositivos en tiempo real. Cuando se utilizan controles distribuidos/jerárquicos, el problema se divide en " celdas " más
pequeñas, y las interacciones entre las celdas pueden conciliarse mediante el consenso para garantizar las limitaciones
de consistencia de las cantidades eléctricas que incumben
a las conexiones entre celdas. Por ejemplo, las celdas adyacentes deben consensuar los intercambios de potencia real
y reactiva en los puntos de interconexión o superposición.
Los puntos de ajuste de la potencia real y reactiva de la
optimización se envían entre los niveles de la jerarquía. Las
comunicaciones intracelulares (al mismo nivel) pueden utilizarse para asegurar el cálculo de los puntos de ajuste de
las FED y así maximizar los objetivos operacionales dados,

Niveles
adicionales
cc
Nivel 3
(Múltiples
vecindarios)

cc
cc

cc

Ajuste P, Q
Respuesta P, Q

Nivel 2
(Vecindario)
Ajuste P, Q
Respuesta P, Q
Nivel 1
(Casa)
(cc) = Controlador de celda
P = Potencia real
Q = Potencia reactiva

figura 5. Arquitectura de comunicaciones para la optimización distribuida y en tiempo real de las AEG. En la figura, el
Nivel 1 estaría en una casa o negocio, el Nivel 2 estaría en un vecindario, y el Nivel 3 estaría en múltiples vecindarios,
todos en un solo circuito de distribución.
48	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
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