IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 50

Magnitud de la tensión (p.u.)

1.05
1
0.95
0.9
0.85
Tensión sin control
Tensión con reguladores
Tensión con OPF

0.8
0.75

0

1,000

2,000
3,000
Índice de nodos en el lado primario

4,000

figura 7. Las tensiones son controladas dentro de 0.95-1.05 p.u. por el algoritmo OPF (puntos verdes).

figura 8. Una flota de VE bajo control distribuido en el
experimento de NODES en la Instalación de Integración de
Sistemas de Energía del NREL. (Fuente: NREL; utilizado con
permiso).

correspondientes transformadores de distribución, lo que
da como resultado una red de 4,521 nodos con 1,335 cargas
agregadas. Agrupamos los nodos en cuatro grandes celdas
(círculos punteados) que fueron físicamente colocados y en
una colección de otros nodos dispersos fuera de estas celdas,
como se ilustra en la figura 6. La celda 1 contiene 357 nodos
con cargas controlables, la celda 2 contiene 222, la celda 3
contiene 310 y la celda 4 contiene 154. La celda 4 representa
el circuito de prueba del EPRI. Nosotros fijamos las cargas
restantes en todos los 292 nodos no incluidos en las cuatro
grandes celdas.
Para evaluar qué tan bien fue habilitada la regulación de
tensión por los algoritmos de control, el modelo trifásico, no
50	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

lineal de flujo de potencia fue simulado usando OpenDSS,
un solucionador de flujos eléctricos. La figura 7 ilustra la
salida de las simulaciones bajo diferentes controles de tensión (tensión sin control en azul, tensión con un controlador
local por defecto en anaranjado, y tensión con el controlador
OPF en verde). La tensión sin control (azul) demuestra una
gran variación en el control de la tensión entre 0.8 y 1.0 p.u.
El controlador local (anaranjado) demostró varias localizaciones de baja tensión (inferior a 0.95 p.u.). En cambio, el
control de OPF (verde) logró mantener las magnitudes de la
tensión de todos los nodos dentro del límite a partir de 0.95 a
1.05 p.u. incorporando la información global. Por el contrario, el control por defecto de los reguladores y condensadores
no podía garantizar que todas las tensiones estuvieran dentro
de este límite. En la figura 7, destacan los nodos situados a
la derecha, que presentan una agrupación ajustada para la
comparación. Estos puntos representan el circuito EPRI y
no experimentaron cambios de tensión significativos porque
sus condiciones iniciales estaban dentro de los parámetros
de funcionamiento normales.
Los resultados de la simulación mostraron que se puede
lograr una mejora de más de 10 veces en la velocidad de
convergencia mediante el método distribuido jerárquico en
comparación con la aplicación coordinada centralmente, sin
perder ninguna optimización. Esta significativa mejora en la
velocidad de convergencia hace posible la optimización y el
control de la red en tiempo real, así como la rápida recuperación de las condiciones de apagón en los grandes sistemas
de distribución.
Estos resultados demuestran cómo la implementación
distribuida jerárquicamente del algoritmo de gradiente primal-dual para resolver un problema de OPF logra minimizar
tanto el costo total sobre todas las FED controlables como
noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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