IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 51

el costo asociado a la carga total de la red, sujeto a las restricciones de regulación de tensión. La implementación propuesta se puede dimensionar para grandes alimentadores de
distribución que comprenden dispositivos en red, y reduce la
carga computacional en comparación con el algoritmo primal-dual de coordinación centralizada mediante el uso de
la estructura de información de las AEG. Hasta donde sabemos, esta simulación demuestra el mayor control basado en
la optimización de un sistema eléctrico hasta la fecha, pero
estamos trabajando en simulaciones aún mayores.

Evaluaciones en la instalación de
integración de sistemas de energía del
NREL
Para evaluar si los algoritmos de software funcionarían al
integrar muchos dispositivos controlables reales, establecimos un gran experimento en la Instalación de Integración de
Sistemas de Energía del NREL. El trabajo del NREL en el
programa ARPA-E NODES ayudó a desarrollar la primera

Simulaciones en gran escala
Hay un desafío significativo para integrar múltiples tecnologías en sistemas operativos de energía fluidos y resilientes
con un gran número (10 8) de dispositivos controlables. Uno
de los mayores obstáculos para comprender cómo funcionarán estos sistemas a escala es crear y probar un marco
informático que permita el diseño y análisis de enfoques de
optimización y control para estos sistemas de energía altamente distribuidos. Para permitir esta visión de las AEG del
futuro, se están empleando técnicas computacionales avanzadas (como la inteligencia artificial, el aprendizaje automático, las simulaciones escalables y el análisis de datos)
buscando desarrollar y evaluar estos nuevos algoritmos de
control y optimización a gran escala para operar de millones
a cientos de millones de dispositivos controlables en la red
en tiempo real.
Se estudiarán estrategias de control innovadoras, seguras, escalables, jerárquicas y en tiempo real, que sean autónomas y que aprovechen al máximo los grandes flujos de
datos en tiempo real, a fin de garantizar que estos complejos
sistemas funcionen adecuadamente en una amplia gama de
condiciones posibles. Para caracterizar y validar estos enfoques, se evaluarán los despliegues mediante simulaciones
coordinadas de 10 8 dispositivos, incluidos los modelos de
alta fidelidad del sistema, cada componente (por ejemplo,
edificios residenciales/comerciales, VE autónomos, energía
solar y eólica), y los controladores autónomos tanto en funcionamientos normales como anormales.
Actualmente, se tarda aproximadamente 1.5 h en ejecutar una simulación de alimentadores con 12,000 dispositivos
FED y controladores distribuidos basados en la optimización, incluidas las soluciones de alta fidelidad de flujos de
potencia de CA para evaluar 24 h a una resolución de 1 min.
Esto equivale a unos 23 días de simulación para todo un
año. La ampliación a decenas de millones de dispositivos
requerirá mucho más para una simulación anual. En muchos
casos, las simulaciones de los días y semanas críticos son
suficientes, pero esto pone de relieve la necesidad de contar
con fuentes informáticas avanzadas para evaluar plenamente
estos enfoques de control y optimización para las AEG del
futuro. Afortunadamente, en el futuro, una vez que se desarrollen y verifiquen los algoritmos, no se necesitarán simulaciones de sus resultados para que se ejecuten en tiempo real
en la red.
noviembre/diciembre 2020	

figura 9. Inversores a prueba en el experimento ARPA-E
NODES. (Fuente: NREL; utilizado con permiso).

figura 10. Las casas inteligentes en Basalt, Colorado.
(Fuente: NREL; utilizado con permiso).
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
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