IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 52

mucho más allá. Dentro de los
hogares, cada nuevo dispositivo o
Sistema fotovoltaico
Microturbina
fuente de energía conectado, como
una batería residencial, un calentador de agua o un sistema solar
Batería de
FV, puede ser controlado para una
iones de litio
eficiencia energética sin precedentes. A mayor escala, comunidades
enteras podrían compartir rápidamente la electricidad, creando una
energía confiable para todos.
HCE había estado buscando
una solución para manejar los
nuevos dispositivos de su sistema.
Esto ha incluido una mezcla de
tecnologías energéticas de clientes y fuentes de generación a gran
escala, ya que la disminución
de los costos de los dispositivos
conectados de propiedad de los
clientes ha reducido notablemente
el costo de estos sistemas. La red
de HCE ha visto 10-15 instalacioMicrorred/Controlador
nes solares en tejados por semana,
de celda
y ha estado aumentando su base
Batería de
solar durante años, planificando
iones híbrida
Generador
un sistema de carga máxima estiacuosa
de hidrógeno
val de 150-MW para el año 2030.
En otro experimento del
mundo real, usamos nuestros algofigura 11. Microrred de Stone Edge Farm, Valle de Sonoma, California. (Fuente:
ritmos de optimización en tiempo
Stone Edge Farm; utilizado con permiso).
real para coordinar los activos en
el Stone Edge Farm Estate Vineimplementación de los algoritmos en el hardware y a demos- yards & Winery en el Valle de Sonoma, California (figura
trar con éxito la optimización en tiempo real de una sola 11). La bodega es una microrred con decenas de FED, incluicelda de la AEG. El experimento incluyó la simulación de un dos sistemas FV, baterías, un electrolizador de hidrógeno,
alimentador de distribución real de California con 366 pun- una turbina de gas y cargas controlables. El experimento,
tos de conexión monofásica, más de 100 activos eléctricos llevado a cabo en colaboración con Heila Technologies, una
controlables (inversores, VE y baterías; véase las figuras 8 y empresa emergente del Instituto Tecnológico de Massachu9), y cientos de dispositivos simulados. Los algoritmos dis- setts, mostró cómo nuestro enfoque puede ayudar a auto-optribuidos se aplicaron en microcontroladores rentables que timizar una celda dentro de la visión futura de la AEG,
se autooptimizan y se comunican con el coordinador central logrando la regulación de la tensión y permitiendo que la
para alcanzar los objetivos a nivel sistema (regulación de microrred se convierta en una central eléctrica virtual que
tensión y respuesta de frecuencia).
pueda proporcionar servicios al sistema de distribución.

52	

Aplicaciones en el mundo real

Conclusión

Hemos empezado a salir del laboratorio para demostrar el
despliegue de las AEG en el mundo real. El equipo ha estado
trabajando con Holy Cross Energy (HCE), una cooperativa
de servicios públicos cerca de Aspen, Colorado, para desplegar la tecnología AEG en un grupo de hogares inteligentes
en Basalt, Colorado. Las casas inteligentes en Basalt Vista
(figura 10) son un piloto para un enfoque de red totalmente
nuevo. Estos hogares optimizan la energía para sus residentes y vecinos, pero los principios detrás de Basalt Vista van

Las AEG del futuro necesitarán controlar y optimizar millones de dispositivos controlables en tiempo real. Un enfoque
tradicional de optimización central de este problema es
inviable debido al costo computacional. Por lo tanto, algoritmos de control jerárquicos y distribuidos que sean robustos, escalables y predictivos y cuenten con una convergencia
demostrable son cruciales para optimizar la red en tiempo
real. NREL ha desarrollado estos algoritmos escalables que
permitirán la proliferación de FED a escala masiva.

ieee power & energy magazine 	

noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

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