IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 65

SVC
1,990 kW G

G 1,990 kW
G 1,260 kW

Off→On

de la restricción FV programada
y 2.26 GW de la operación HPAB
programada. En su lugar, se programó la generación de 1.5 GW
de la HPAB. Además, el operador
solicitó 1 GW de generación térmica. Durante la tarde, se sincronizó una central de gas de 0.7 GW
3 h después de la orden del operador. Durante la noche, casi no
quedaba energía almacenada en
la HPAB.
Es fundamental comprender
que una reducción en la generación FV a menudo coincide con
una mayor demanda durante el
invierno y principios de la primavera debido a una causa raíz
común: el aumento de nubosidad
resulta en una temperatura atmosférica más baja y menos irradiación. Para modificar el funcionamiento del sistema durante el día
y casi en tiempo real cuando hay
errores en la predicción de producción FV, son útiles las centrales HPAB con un tiempo de arranque mínimo de varios minutos y
las centrales térmicas que tienen
tiempo de puesta en marcha relativamente cortos. No obstante,
cuando aumenta la capacidad FV,
el almacenamiento de las centrales HPAB debe monitorearse y
gestionarse con cuidado.

Alimentador D

G
297 kw

G
1,500 kW
Exis. SVC

Subestación
Alimentador C

Subestación

Alimentador A

figura 17. Ejemplos de contramedidas para la gestión de tensión en un sistema de
distribución. Las letras rojas y verdes muestran nuevas implementaciones y cambios
en la conexión de red, respectivamente. Exis.: existente. (Fuente: Kyushu EPCO;
usado con permiso).

FV a escala de
servicios públicos

Subestación
Enlace de
telecomunicaciones

FV a pequeña escala
Demanda
comercial

Demanda
industrial

Demanda
residencial

figura 18. Mejora de la supervisión del sistema mediante el uso de interruptores de
polo a gas con sensores de enclavamiento. El símbolo representa un interruptor de
distribución con sensores, mientras que muestra un transformador de polo. (Fuente:
Kyushu EPCO; usado con permiso).

Operación del
sistema de distribución
A medida que aumenta la proporción de generación renovable y disminuye el suministro
de potencia de las centrales
eléctricas tradicionales, a gran
escala y centralizadas, el flujo
de potencia en una red de distribución, tradicionalmente unidireccional desde la red de transmisión hasta la carga, se vuelve
bidireccional y dependiente del
equilibrio entre cargas locales y generación local. En esta
situación, la gestión de tensión
en un sistema de distribución se
vuelve más complicada porque
el perfil de tensión de una línea
noviembre/diciembre 2020	

Costos más altos

Restricciones de la red

Más necesidades de flexibilidad

* Ampliar el esquema de
subasta para energía
solar FV, eólica y
bioenergía
* Construir un mejor
entorno empresarial para
la energía eólica marina

* Reforzar la red
en función de
consideraciones
de costo-beneficio

* Mejorar las fuentes de
flexibilidad convencionales
(potencia térmica,
almacenamiento por
bombeo, interconexión, etc.)

* Reformar el esquema FIT
para adecuarlo a las
características de cada
fuente de potencia
(a)

* Maximizar el uso
de la red existente
( " Conectar y
administrar " )

(b)

* Explore nuevas fuentes
de flexibilidad
(Generación renovable,
centrales eléctricas
virtuales, respuesta a la
demanda, etc.)
(c)

figura 19. Direcciones estratégicas futuras hacia la energía renovable como una
fuente de potencia importante. Acciones relacionadas con (a) gastos, (b) restricciones
y (c) flexibilidad.
ieee power & energy magazine 	

65



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
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