IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 70

Los operadores del sistema han desarrollado
e implementado rápidamente nuevos procedimientos
para asegurar un suministro eléctrico estable.

STATCOM

Carga comercial

(Inversor inteligente)
FV a escala de
servicios públicos

: Potencia reactiva
: Flujo usual

SVR

: Flujo inverso

Subestación
Enlace de
telecomunicaciones

Servidor
de gestión
de tensión

FV a escala de
servicios públicos

Almacenamiento
(incluidos los VE)

SVC
FV a pequeña escala

figura 26. Un sistema de distribución de próxima generación. (Fuente: Kyushu EPCO; usado con permiso).

carga/descarga inteligente. La figura muestra los patrones de
carga y descarga a nivel nacional en CL1-CL5 y el cambio
en la demanda neta para cada caso el 1 de abril. Es evidente
que la demanda neta se basa sustancialmente en la carga y
descarga optimizadas de los VE.
Como se muestra en la operación de oferta y demanda
del 2 de marzo de 2019 en la figura 14, un error de pronóstico de generación FV excesiva/insuficiente es una amenaza
genuina para el sistema eléctrico de Kyushu. No es económico utilizar centrales térmicas para mantener la flexibilidad hacia arriba y hacia abajo ante un inusual error de
predicción. La energía FV y eólica pueden proporcionar
flexibilidad de generación descendente sin perder importantes oportunidades de producción, y pueden proporcionar flexibilidad de generación ascendente si la producción
se reduce por adelantado. En el futuro, habrá posibilidades
sustanciales para las fuentes de energía distribuida del lado
de la demanda. Para evaluar los diferentes requerimientos
y disposiciones de flexibilidad durante el funcionamiento
óptimo del sistema, necesitamos mejorar nuestro modelo de
costos de producción para granularizar la flexibilidad operativa total en dos direcciones (hacia arriba y hacia abajo) y
diferentes dominios temporales.
Entre los diferentes tipos de flexibilidad, se supone que
una flexibilidad terciaria-lenta ascendente, que puede activarse en 30 minutos, trata los errores de predicción extremos
para la demanda residual. La figura 25 ofrece un ejemplo
de un equilibrio de oferta y demanda de flexibilidad terciaria-lenta: los requerimientos para la flexibilidad hacia arriba
70	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

y hacia abajo (solicitud hacia arriba y solicitud hacia abajo)
son 6 y 2 GW, respectivamente. Se cumplen a través de una
combinación de centrales eléctricas tradicionales y fuentes
de energía distribuida, como la generación FV y eólica, VE
y HPWH eléctricos. El requerimiento de flexibilidad reducido para las centrales térmicas significa una reducción sustancial del costo operativo durante el modo de espera.
En el área de distribución, es necesario administrar
el flujo de potencia y la tensión. La figura 26 muestra una
posible disposición futura en la que un nuevo servidor de
administración de tensión controla centralmente los reguladores de tensión de paso (SVR, por sus siglas en inglés),
compensadores síncronos estáticos, inversores inteligentes
de FV a escala de servicios públicos, SVC y baterías para
administrar el perfil de tensión de un sistema de distribución. Al administrar y controlar los recursos tanto del lado
del sistema como del lado del cliente, se espera que los costos de inversión y operación se difieran y reduzcan.

Problemas institucionales
Mediante el proceso de desregulación, diversos acuerdos
institucionales para el diseño de mercados mayoristas y
minoristas y marcos normativos se adaptarán a la penetración de la generación renovable, especialmente FV y la
potencia eólica. El uso de generadores como fuentes de flexibilidad es un requerimiento técnico apropiado no solo para
los generadores convencionales sino también de generación
renovable, especialmente las fuentes FV y eólicas. En Japón,
el código de conexión a la red aún no ha madurado en comnoviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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