IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 72

De
vuelta en
la carrera

L

LAS ISLAS CANARIAS SON UN ARCHIPIÉLAGO
de 7,447 km2 y 2,127,685 de habitantes (2018), situado
al noroeste de África (figura 1). Las islas son una comunidad autónoma de España. Hay ocho islas habitadas
y seis redes eléctricas aisladas, ya que Fuerteventura,
Lanzarote y La Graciosa son un sistema interconectado.
La cantidad disponible de energía solar es bastante elevada, ya que alcanza valores de aproximadamente 1,900
kWh/kilovatio pico (kwp)/año en ubicaciones favorables.
El viento también es una fuente de energía renovable
importante, principalmente durante el verano.
En 2018, la electricidad generada en Canarias
alcanzó los 8,841 GWh, con una demanda eléctrica
máxima de 1,403.6 MW. De la electricidad generada, el
10.5 % fue renovable, un aumento del 32.2 % respecto del
valor en 2017. De los 3,007 MW de capacidad instalada en
Canarias, 168 MW corresponden a la energía fotovoltaica
(FV), 429 MW corresponden a la energía eólica y 13 MW a
la hidráulica. Las centrales eléctricas convencionales son,
en su mayoría, unidades de ciclo combinado (865 MW),
pero también hay turbinas de vapor (483  MW), motores
diésel (487 MW) y turbinas de gas (557 MW). Estas unidades se alimentan con diésel y aceite pesado. En 1989,
se aprobó la introducción del gas natural en las islas, pero
muchos residentes se oponen a ello. Además, la única refinería ubicada en Canarias cesó la producción en 2018, principalmente para cumplir con la normativa medioambiental
de la Unión Europea (UE).

Canarias es un destino turístico muy importante para
muchos europeos y otros. De hecho, Canarias recibió a más
de 15.6 millones de visitantes en 2018. La industria turística representa hasta un 35 % del consumo de electricidad
de los sistemas eléctricos insulares de Canarias (figura 1).
A diferencia de otras islas turísticas populares de la UE (por
ejemplo, las islas Baleares y las griegas), los visitantes de
Canarias se encuentran bien dispersos durante todo el año.
Por lo tanto, el perfil de carga es relativamente plano y la
generación convencional suele ser constante durante todo el
año, mostrando máximos de potencia por hora en días hábiles de entre 1,170 y 1,400 MW en 2018 (figura 2).
El precio promedio en el mercado mayorista de la electricidad generada por las unidades eléctricas convencionales

Por Ricardo Guerrero Lemus
Identificador de Objeto Digital 10.1109/MPE.2020.3014745
Fecha de la versión actual: 16 de octubre de 2020

72

ieee power & energy magazine

1540-7977/20©2020IEEE

noviembre/diciembre 2020



IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 1
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 4
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 73
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 79
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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