IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 73

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depende en gran medida del
tamaño del sistema insular (tabla
1). Este precio incluye un costo
fijo, el cual se relaciona con la
disponibilidad de cada unidad
para suministrar energía eléctrica durante el tiempo considerado (la capacidad firme), y el
costo variable, que está mayormente relacionado con el precio
del combustible. El costo fijo
incluye el retorno financiero de
la inversión en la unidad generadora, el cual fue del 6.503 %
desde 2014 pero fue revisado
por la Comisión Nacional de
los Mercados y la Competencia
(CNMC) y fue reducido al 5.58
% por seis años a partir de 2020.
Esta reducción se atribuyó principalmente a la baja tasa de interés monetaria a largo plazo que
se espera en el mercado.
Por supuesto, el costo de referencia con el que deben competir la energía eólica y solar es
el costo variable de la electricidad, ya que se considera que la
generación renovable no ofrece
capacidad firme al sistema. Se
considera a la central eólica-hidroeléctrica El Hierro (descrita
en la sección " El Hierro: la
mayor penetración de electricidad renovable en las Islas Canarias " ), pero no ofrece capacidad firme al sistema durante todo el año debido a la estacionalidad y, en consecuencia, tiene
una compensación de costo fijo que difiere de la de las unidades térmicas. Para comprobar el
costo real de cada unidad, Red Eléctrica de España (REE), el gestor del sistema nacional y
propietario de la red de transmisión, audita periódicamente las instalaciones in situ para ajustar la curva que relaciona el contenido térmico del combustible consumido con la potencia producida. Además, cualquier empresa que
administre unidades eléctricas convencionales debe realizar subastas
públicas para adquirir el combustible y las facturas de compra deben
presentarse ante la CNMC para liquidar mensualmente los costos de
generación. En efecto, el precio del diésel y del aceite pesado que se
utilizan para producir megavatios hora convencionales es conocido y
varía según la isla (tabla 2).
Para planificar las unidades convencionales de potencia que suministran electricidad a la red, la REE da órdenes de despacho diarias a
las diferentes unidades térmicas, con base a una normativa específica
que prioriza los méritos económicos y mediante la cual cada red eléctrica insular actúa como un nodo único. Una directiva de despacho
secundaria considera aspectos de seguridad para inyectar energía renovable hasta el límite de
integración. Finalmente, una instrucción de despacho terciaria evalúa las restricciones. Todos
estos pedidos de despacho pueden ser ajustados, de ser necesario. Adicionalmente, algunos
códigos de red españoles se han adaptado a las redes eléctricas insulares de Canarias. Un

Alcanzando el
100% de energía
renovable en las
Islas Canarias

noviembre/diciembre 2020	

ieee power & energy magazine 	

73


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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020

IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 1
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 2
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 4
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 5
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 6
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 7
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 8
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 9
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 10
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 11
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 12
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 13
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 14
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 15
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 16
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 18
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 19
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 20
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 21
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 24
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 28
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 30
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 31
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 33
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 34
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 35
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 37
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 38
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 42
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 46
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 47
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 48
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 49
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 50
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 51
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 53
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 55
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 56
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 57
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 58
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 60
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 61
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 62
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 63
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IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 65
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 66
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 67
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 68
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 69
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 70
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 71
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 72
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 73
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 74
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 75
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 76
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 77
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 78
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 79
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 80
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 81
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 82
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 83
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 84
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 85
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 86
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 87
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 88
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 89
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 90
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 91
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 92
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 93
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 94
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 95
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 96
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 97
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 98
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 99
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 100
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 101
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 102
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 103
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 104
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 105
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 106
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 107
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 108
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 109
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 110
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 111
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 112
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 113
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 114
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 115
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 116
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 117
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 118
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 119
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 120
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 121
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 122
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 123
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 124
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 125
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 126
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 127
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - 128
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover3
IEEE Power & Energy Magazine - Spanish - November/December 2020 - Cover4
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